Biology Past Questions

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1. (a) Name the organism illustrated in the diagram above (b) Name the structure labelled A.

2.  List (a) two air pollutants (b) Three water pollutants. Study the diagram below and use it to answer question 3

3. (a) Name the structure  illustrated above (b) Name the parts labelled A- D (c) State the function of the part labelled C (d) in which group of animals is this structure found? 4. State the basic structure of a virus. Study the diagram below and use it to answer question 5 Study the diagram below and use it to answer question 5

 5. (a) Name the organism illustrated in the diagram above (b) Name the parts labelled A to D (c) What is the habitat of the organism? What are the functions of A and D? The diagram below represents an instrument used in an ecological study.

Use it to answer question 6

6. (a) VWhat is the name of the instrument? (b) What is the instrument used for? (c) What is the function of the part labelled A? (d) Name the parts labelled B and C.

7. A food substance was put in two test tubes labeilcd I and Il in test tube , Fehling's solutions A and B were added and the mixture warmed. A negative result was obtained. In test tube Il dilute hydrochloric acid was added and the mixture was boiled, after which few drops of sodium hyddroxide were added. Then Fehling's solutions A and B were added. A positive result was obtained in test tube H after warming (a) What colour should indicate a positive result in test tube lI? (b) What food substance must have given the positive result in test tube l1? (c) What role did dilute hydrochloric acid play in the test? (d) Why was sodium hydroxide added to test tube l1? (e) Why was a negative result obtained in test tube 1? (f) Suggest the food substance in the original samples tested

                                                                                                 SECTION B

Answer all the questions in this section

8. (a) ldentify specimens A and B without reason (b) State the agricultural classification of each of specimen A and B based on their uses. (c) Name one pest each that is likely to have put the specimens A and B in the condition they are (d) Name two ways of preventing the activity of the named pests during storage (e) Give one possible disadvantage of the named control measure of the pest during storage (f) Describe how you can test for the presence of protein in specimen A (g) Carry out a test to show the presence of starch in specimen B with the reagent provided. Record your procedure and result following the pattern given below

9.Examine specimen C carefully (a) Copy the table below in your answer book. Complete the table using your observations on specimen C






Name of floral parts

Number of floral parts

Colour of floral parts









b) Carefully detach the other petals except the special petal. Make a large labeled drawing (10-12 cm long) of the remaining floral parts. 0. The variation of length of leaves of a certain plant species was studied in order to illustrate the frequency distribution of the lengths. The leaves were sorted out into the following ranges of lengths:

(a) Using the data. draw a histogram to show the frequency of leaves of different lenghts. Place thee range of lengths on the horizontal axis and the number of leaves/frequency on the vertical axis (b) How many leaves were collected during the study? (c) if the leaves were collected from different plants,give two possible causes of the differences in length.

Range of length (in mm)

Number of leaves / frequency













39- 42














View Answer & Discuss WAEC 1996

1.Define the following terms: (i) Accommodation (ii) Metamorphosis 

2. Why is the wall of the left ventricle of the heart thicker than that of the right ventricle?

3. Why is sugar contained in the urine of a person with diabetes mellitus?

4.Which hormone controls water reabsorption in the kidney?  

5. Explain the significance of hemoglobin in respiration

Study the diagram below and use it to answer Question 6

Open photo

6. (a) What is the aim of the experiment illustrated in the diagram above?

(b) Name the liquid labeled I. (c) Name two materials that can be used as living tissue (d) (i) What would happen to the level of solution inside the living tissue in both A and B if the set-up is allowed to stand for about three hours? (ii) Give a reason for your.answer  (c) What is the function of set-up B? 

7. (a) What is pest? (b) List three plant pests and name the plant attacked by each

Use the diagram below to answer Question 8


Open photo

8 (a) identify the organism represented in the diagram

 (b) List three features that adapt the organism to its environment.

 9. (a) (i) identify specimens A and B without giving reasons. (ii) What are the possible habitats of specimens A and B? (b) Remove the wings of specimen A and make a large labeled drawing 12cm to 15 long of it. (C) In a tabular form, give three differences between specimens A and B (d) Give two economic importance of specimen A and one of specimen B

10. (a) What types of leaves are specimens C,D and E?

(b) () identity the leaf arrangement in specimen D. (ii) What type of venation is exhibited in specimen C?

 (c) Observe specimens C and E with a hand-lens. Which one has more stomata? (d) (i) State the likely habitat of the plants from which specimen C was obtained.

(ii) Of what importance are specimens C, D and E to the plant? [1mark] (e) Making use of the hand lens, identify specimens F, G and H

 (f) State their modes of nutrition?  (g) State two Observable differences between specimens F andG|.

11. (a) identify specimens I,J and K stating organism from which each has been obtained.

(b) List two functions of each of the specimens.  (C) Arrange tne specimens in order of evolutionary advancement.





View Answer & Discuss WAEC 1997

1.State two Structural differences between the nymph of cockroach and an adult cockroach.

2. List three characteristic features of cross-pollinated flowers.

3. Give a reason why the testes in most mammals are located outside the body cavity

4. State the structure used by each of the following organism for movement: (a) Ameba (b) Euglena (c) Paramecium.

5. List three types of stimuli detected by the sensory nerve endings on the skin.

6. Explain the function of the ciliary muscles of the eye.

7. How many "daughter" cells are produced in (a) meiosis (b) mitosis?

Open photo

8. The graphs show the limit of tolerance of some species of fish I, Il and lll to water temperature. (a) From the graphs, what can you deduce about the geographical range of species i and ili? (b) What is the optimal temperature for growth of species I, Il and IIl?

9. Name three abiotic factors which plants growing close to each other may compete for?

 10. Name four excretory products of plants.

11. (a) (i) identify specimens A, B,C and D without reasons. (ii) To which class of animals do specimens B and C belong? (ii) State the excretory structures possessed by each of specimens B and D. (b) State two external features used by specimen C for gaseous exchange. (c) Mention (i) three structural similarities (i) two structural differences between specimens B and C (d) Make a labeled drawing 8-10 cm long of the ventral view of specimen A. 

12. (a) identify specimen E without reasons. (b) Make a labeled drawing 8-10cm long of the cut surface of specimen  E.

 13.(a) identity specimens F, GH, I, J and K without reasons. (b) Copy and complete the table below into your answer booklet

Put a tick ( ✓ ) where appropriate





View Answer & Discuss WAEC 1998

                                                  PART I


1 (a)Specimens a A, B and C are different liquids of food materials. Cary out the Following tests to identify the food Contents Of Specimens A, B and C.

Wash the test-tubes after each use to avoid contaminating the next sample.

Record your tests and observations shown in the table below





(i) To a small portion of a specimen A, add four drops of reagents F, Shake the mixture and heat gently for a few minutes. Record your observations and inference. 

(ii) To a small portion of a specimen A, add three drops of reagent D, shake the mixture and heat gently for a few minutes. Allow the mixture to cool. Record your observations and inference.

(ii) To a small portion of a specimen A, add three drops of reagent H, shake the mixture and heat gently for a few minutes. Allow the mixture to cool. Record your observations and inference.Leave this mixture in the test tube.

(iv) To the resulting mixture in (ii) above, add three drops of reagent E, shake the mixture and heat gently for a few minutes. Allow the mixture to cool. Record your observations and inference.

(v) To a small portion of specimen B, add three drops of reagents G, Shake the mixture. Record your observations and inference.  

(vi) Take a strip of the litmus paper provided, dip the tip of the  paper into Specimen C, Record your observations and inference of the reaction on the litmus paper.

 (b)(i) Give one example each of the food contents identified  in specimens A and B (ii) State two uses each, of the food contents identified in specimens A, B and C to man. 

(c) Name the primary source of the food contents identified in specimens A and B and a natural source of specimen C.

2. (a) (i) State three observable I and J without reasons.(ii) Name the habitats of specimens I and J (b) State three observable structural adaptations for movement possessed by specimen J (c)(i) Name one respiratory organs of specimen l and J three respiratory organs of specimen J. (ii) State four common features of the respiratory organs of specimens I and J(d) Cut off one of the opercula of specimens I with the scalpel or small knife to expose the respiratory organ. Make a labeled drawing about 8 cm to 10cm long of the head region up to the end of the pectoral fin only to show its structures.

                                                                                                      PART II


3. (a) Observing specimen K, copy and complete the table below


Floral Parts Number of Colored Parts Free or Fused  or united

Essential or Non-essential


Sepals/calyx Petals/corolla




b. Cut Specimen K longitudinally into iwo halves. Observe the halved specimen K and use it to answer Questions (b) (i) - (iv) . (i) What is the symmetry of specimen K (ii) Classify Specimen K in relation to its reproductive structures.  structures. (iii) Name tne type of placentation specimen K (iv) What type of ovary does specimen K have?

c. Detach the sepals and petals of the longitudinal section of the Specimen and make a labeled diagram of 10cm to 12cm long to illustrate the features of the remaining part of specimen k

d. Name the agent of pollination of specimen K . (ii) Give one example of the agent of pollination of specimen K  (iii) State four adaptive features of specimen K that attracts the agent you have mentioned.



View Answer & Discuss WAEC 1999


1 (a) (i) identify specimens A and B without reasons  (ii) Give four differences between specimens A and B .

Using a sharp knife, scalpel or blade, cut specimen B into two equal halves to expose the internal structures.

b. (i) Make a labeled drawing of 8 cm to 10cm long to show the observable internal structures of specimen B.

(ii) State the dispersal mechanism of specimen B.

(C)(i) Identify  C, D and E without reasons. (ii) State two features, each of specimen C, D and E which adapt  to their habitats. 

2. The height (cm) of 20 students in a class are as follows:.155, 157, 151 169, 162, 151, 149, 165, 169,176.169, 179,173, 179, 173, 169, 157, 155, 165, 157, 197 and 162.

Use them to answer the following questions:

(a) Make a frequency distribution table of class interval of five of the different heights  (b) what is the modal height? (ii) median height? (ii) mean height? 

 (c) (i) Construct a histogram showing the variation of height, amongst the students with the heights on the horizontal number of students on the vertical axis.

 (ii) How many students fall into each or the height axis and number of students on the vertical axis.

 (iii) How many students have height between 155 and 179?

 (iv) Find the difference in height between shortest and the tallest students. 

(d) (i)What type of variation is height? (ii) Mention three other examples of the type of variation in (d) (i) above.

3.(a) identify specimen F, G, H, I, J, and K without reasons. (b)(i) State one observable feature by which each of specimens F,G and H obtain their food. 

(ii) State three observable features which contribute to the survival of specimen I. 

(c)Mention two observable characteristics each, of specimens J and K. (ii) Name the two bones, each, which articulates with specimens J and K 

(iii) Make a labeled drawing of 8cm to 10 cm long of specimens K.

View Answer & Discuss WAEC 2000