No of Chapters: 5
No of Pages: 44
The study delved into the assessment of the usage of computer applications in the teaching and learning of Mathematics, in some selected secondary schools in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State. Related works of notable scholars were collected and reviewed. Data was collected from one hundred (100) respondents through self-structured questionnaire and was analyzed using the t-test statistical method to test the stated hypotheses to reach meaningful conclusion. The study revealed that computer use in teaching and learning of Mathematics in Nigerian schools is still in its early phase. Also, the use of ICT in Mathematics lessons improves students’ achievements compared to using traditional approaches. Computers provide instant calculations and rapidly generate graphics with which students can make and test conjectures. It was recommended, among others, that school Mathematics curriculum designers and teachers should be aware of the role and influence of the use of computers in Mathematics instruction so that students can improve their mastery of mathematical concepts and education policy makers, educators and all concerned should evaluate and recognize the roles of ICT in education in order to work for the effective functioning of this technology in the educational system.
Table of Content:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1-4
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4-5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5-6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6-7
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study 7
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Computer Use in Teaching and Learning Mathematics in
Secondary Schools 8-11
2.3 Computer Programs that Support the Teaching and Learning
of Mathematics 11
2.4 Types of ICT’s used in Education 12-13
2.5 Advantages of ICT 13-17
2.6 Potential Benefits of Using Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
In Teaching and Learning Mathematics. 17-18
2.7 Strategic use of Technology in the Teaching and Learning of
2.8 Relevance of ICTs to the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics 20-21
2.9 Barriers in Technology Integration 21-22
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 23
3.2 Research Design 23
3.3 Population of the Study 23
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 23
3.5 Research Instrument 23
3.6 Validation of Research Instrument 24
3.7 Administration of Research Instrument 24
3.8 Data Analysis Technique 24
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 25
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis of Findings 25-28
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 29
5.2 Conclusion 29
5.3 Recommendations 29-30
1.1 Background to the Study
Mathematics, to most, is a complex and difficult subject. The tendency for most students is to consider the subject as one that is boring, thus, creating lack of interest in the topics being discussed. This poses a great challenge for teachers and educators, especially in the primary and intermediate levels, wherein a good study habit and a firm grasp of basic concepts should be developed.
Mathematics is one of the most important school subjects in the curriculum worldwide. It is a subject that has direct relationship with other subjects, particularly technical and sciences. Mathematics is also a subject that cuts across primary and secondary school as a compulsory subject. Umameh, (2011) in Tshabalala and Ncube, (2013) was of the view that mathematics is bedrock and an indispensable tool for scientific, technological and Mathematics advancement of any nation. In addition to that Davies and Hersh, (2012) see mathematics as the important subject not only from point of view of getting an academic qualification at school or college, but also is a subject that prepares the students for the future as well irrespective of which work of life they choose to be a part of. Mefor, (2014) summarized it all by saying that mathematics relates to everything in the universe from the smallest to the largest. Umameh, (2011) added that mathematics is intimately connected to daily life and everybody’s life-long planning. Therefore, mathematics is a subject that education and human life cannot function effectively without it. Equally, in Nigeria, mathematics is given all the necessary importance in the curriculum and all policies related to education, right from primary to higher levels. In relation to that Federal Republic of Nigeria (FGN) (2004) categorically stated that mathematics is one of the core or basic subject for all primary and secondary school children. In addition to that mathematics is one of the compulsory subjects that must be passed at credit level by students before getting admission into any tertiary institution in Nigeria. The secondary school mathematics has the following objectives as identified by Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre (CESAC) (1982):
• To develop computational skills and foster the desire and ability to be accurate in a degree relevant to the problem at hand.
• To develop precise, logical and abstract thinking.
• To develop ability to recognize problems and to solve them with related to mathematics knowledge.
• To provide necessary mathematical background for further education.
• To stimulate and encourage creativity, originality and curiosity in the learner.
However, it is disheartening to note that with all the importance attached to mathematics in Nigeria’s education system, poor performance is recorded in public examinations in recent time. This poor performance in mathematics is one of the major reason for decline in science and technology courses and development, even though FGN(2004) emphasis on 60:40 ratio in favour of sciences in the area of admission into higher institutions.
For long, the role of Mathematics was limited to purely academic domain. Now, the role of Mathematics is not restricted to purely academic domain. It has entered the domain of Technology and Industry. New fields in Mathematics such as Operation Research, Control theory, Signal Processing and cryptography have been generated which need technology. Technology can reduce the effort devoted to tedious computations and increase students’ focus on more important Mathematics.
Educational technology is an interdisciplinary field which is comprised of a diverse set of disciplines and knowledge domains (Bhagwan, 2005). It is mainly concerned with the use of various forms of instructional modes that aids in simplifying abstract concepts during the teaching and learning process. Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) refers to the use of a computer as an instructional material in the teaching learning process. In the process, the teacher gives learners computer directions in a programming language, use the computer as a tool using in-built software such as word processors and spread sheets or as a tutor the learners take drills, practice, tutorial, use exploration tools or simulation, and at times test using the computer (Deepark& Turner, 2006).
Snir (1996) in Hung and Khine (2006) argues that computers can make a unique contribution to the clarification and correction of commonly held misconceptions of phenomenon by visualizing those ideas. For instance, he suggests that the computer can be used to form a representation for the phenomenon in which all the relational and Mathematical wave equations, are embedded within the program code and reflected on the screen by the use of graphics and visuals. Such use, according to Anderson, Boyle and Yost, (1986) in Hung and Khine (2006) makes the computer an efficient tool to clarify scientific understanding of waves and other Mathematical topics.
Skinner’s (1950) concept of programmed instruction emphasized the need for total educational plan involving, identifying objectives; arranging subject matter into logical sequences; preparing and testing instructional programs; and then implementing, testing, and revising them. Skinner shifted the emphasis in education away from the teacher's presentation of information and toward the learner's behaviour and, especially, reinforcement of that behaviour. His teaching machines provided programmed instruction, which allowed students to proceed through lessons by small steps, at their own pace, following an orderly sequence, and receiving immediate reinforcement for every correct response. Skinner's work emphasized the use of audio-visuals, which are well-illustrated in facilitating individualized learning.
Paper-and-pencil manipulation has been the standard approach in the teaching and learning of mathematics for many years. However, technology has the potential to change that. Many traditional difficult problems can now be solved by pressing a few keystrokes, using the appropriate technology. Computers allow more powerful mathematical problem-solving and graphing opportunities in the learning and teaching of mathematics. They provide convenient, accurate and dynamic drawing, graphing and computational tools (NCTM, 2003) and give students opportunities to explore applications and concepts that would be too tedious and time consuming using paper-and-pencil techniques. Nowadays, there is an increasing realisation that graphing technologies, particularly computers, may help secondary school students in learning mathematics and thus improve the ways of teaching and learning mathematics.
Various ideas have been put in place to checkmate the academic performance of students in Mathematics, part of which is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support learning. ICT is technology that supports activities involving information. Such activities include gathering, processing, storing and presenting data. Increasingly these activities also involve collaboration and communication.The impact of ICT on learning is currently in relation to use of digital media, primarily computers and internet to facilitate teaching and learning. ICTs are the technologies used in conveying, manipulation and storage of data by electronic means, they provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environments.
One defining feature of ICTs is their ability to transcend time and space. ICTs make possible asynchronous learning, or learning characterized by a time lag between the delivery of instruction and its reception by learners. Online course materials, for example, may be accessed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ICT-based educational delivery (e.g., educational programming broadcast over radio or television) also dispenses with the need for all learners and the instructor to be in one physical location. Additionally, certain types of ICTs, such as teleconferencing technologies, enable instruction to be received simultaneously by multiple, geographically dispersed learners (i.e., synchronous learning).
Another defining feature is that teachers and learners no longer have to rely solely on printed books and other materials in physical media housed in libraries (and available in limited quantities) for their educational needs. With the Internet and the World Wide Web, a wealth of learning materials in almost every subject and in a variety of media can now be accessed from anywhere at any time of the day and by an unlimited number of people. This is particularly significant for many schools in developing countries, and even some in developed countries, that have limited and outdated library resources. ICTs also facilitate access to resource persons— mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, business leaders, and peers—all over the world.