The Socio-cultural Groups in Conflict Resolution in Kaduna State: A Case Study of Yoruba Ethnic Group

Type Thesis
Faculty Arts & Humanities
Course Political Science
Price ₦5,000
Key Features:
No of Page: 64
No of Chapter: 5
Tables
Well Detailed
Abstract:
Conflicts have their historical forebear in Nigeria. In many ways, it can be postulated that the creation of Nigeria as a country was an outcome of many conflicts and compromises. Nigeria is a pluralistic society; culturally, politically, ethnically, religiously and otherwise. Of all these pluralism, it appears that ethnicity and religion are the most dominant and problematic. Thus ethnicity and religion have provided the pattern and potential for the protracted violent ethno-religious conflicts this country has experienced in the past three decades. Scholars have attributed the causes of these conflicts to various factors like struggle for land resources, traditional authority, competition for economic and political spaces, clash of values and way of lives, religion and ethnicity and religious manipulations. However, the alarming rate of poverty in Nigeria has much bearing in the high rate of conflict in the country most especially in Kaduna State. Through the collection of primary and secondary data by administration of questionnaire and consultation of textbooks, journals, newspapers, and online publication, this study assesses the role of socio-cultural groups in conflict resolution in Kaduna State using Yoruba ethnic group as a case study. The study found that the initiatives of socio-cultural groups did not aid in resolving conflict in Kaduna State within 2014-2017. The study consequently recommends that government at all levels should embark on job creation projects so as to curtail the rising rate of poverty in Kaduna State that had much bearing to the high rate of conflict in the State.
Table of Content:
Title Page....................................................................................................................……... i
Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………. ii
Certification………………………………………………………………………………... iii
Dedication………………………………………………………………………………….. iv
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………… v
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………....... vii
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………. ix
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Introduction……………………………………………………………………………...1
Statement of the Research Problem…………………………………………………..... 3
Research Questions…………………………………………………………………….. 4
Objectives of the Study………………………………………………………………… 4
Research Hypotheses……..……………………………………………………………..5
Scope and Limitation of the Study…………………………………………………....... 5
Significance of the Study………………………………………………………………..5
Methodology of the Study……………………………………………………………....6
Population Size………………………………………………………………………6
Sample Size…………….…………………………………………………...............6
Sample Method………………………………………………………………….......7
Method of Data Analysis………………………………………………………….....8
Conceptual Clarification…………………………………………………………………8
1.10 Chapterisation…………………………………………………………………………..9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….. 10
2.2 Literature Review………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.2.1 Historical Background of Conflict in Nigeria………………………..………………10
2.2.2 Overview of Conflict in Nigeria……………………………………………………..15
2.2.3 Impact of Conflict in Nigeria ……………………………..................................... 17
2.2.4 Issues on Conflict Resolution…………………………………….………………....20
2.2.5 Challenges of Conflict Resolution in Nigeria…………………………………….....23
2.3 Theoretical Framework……………….………………………………………………....26
2.3.1 Frustration-Aggression Theory……………………………………………………...26
2.3.2 Critique of the Theory……………………………………………….......................27
2.3.3 Relevance of the Theory …………………………………………………………....28
CHAPTER THREE: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF YORUBA ETHNIC GROUP
3.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………...29
3.2 Historical Background of Yoruba Ethnic Group………………………………………...29
3.3 Yoruba Culture………………………………………………………………................. 32
3.4 Yoruba Philosophy …….………………………………………………………………..34
3.5 Yoruba Law………………………………………………………................................. 35
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………...37
4.2 Analysis of Tables……………………………………………………………………….37
4.3 Discussions of Findings………………………………………………………………....46
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………...... 47
5.2 Summary ………………………………………………………………........................ 47
5.3 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….....48
5.4 Recommendations…………………………………………………………………….....49
References…………………………………………………….……………………………. 52
Appendix………………………………………………………….………………………... 57
Introduction:
Conflicts of varying scales and intensities have been witnessed in this century in different parts of the world. It is difficult to ascertain the exact number of these conflicts but it is safe to say that these social unrests have taken a toll on humanity in terms of deaths, displacements and disruption of economic and social activities. Indeed massive violent conflicts on a scale previously unimaginable have come to stare humanity in the face with their attendant adverse effects on the socio-economic development of the society (Abdullahi and Saka, 2007).

It is a truism that since the beginning of recorded history conflicts existed in Africa; however, the end of the Cold war brought to the fore a new path- stream of conflicts and domestic tension, which has seriously derailed the West African development process in almost all aspects. Today, while increased cooperation between various countries in West Africa has fortunately helped to reduce the tempo of inter-state conflicts considerably, the post cold war period has ushered in its wake an upsurge of conflicts across regional, ethnic, and religious lines within some nations (Abimboye, 2009).

The breakdown of the ideological mindset and the structures of the cold war global alliances, had also unfortunately, unleashed formally suppressed ethnic and political tensions in some West African countries. In other words, conflicts have arisen within these nations from deep- rooted antagonisms that had been held in check for so many years. In effect, the end of the cold war has brought to the fore exposed conflicts, which were hitherto overshadowed by superpower rivalry. In countries like Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea- Bissau and Cote d’Ivoire there have been outright carnage and the destruction of property and traditional institutions which used to contain domestic tension and conflicts as well as environmental decay and instability (Ndujihe, 2013).
Conflicts in general are not new to human societies; they are as old as human society because they have been in existence in all spheres of human life since the beginning of history. Conflicts are necessary characteristics of every human society- a “normal process of interaction particularly in complex societies in which resources are usually scarce” (Bakwesegha, 1997). A conflict however, becomes an abnormality when it results to violence. The religious dimension in conflict is also not a new phenomenon, as casual checks of some religious texts reveal accounts of bloody conflicts fought in the name of religion. Religion has the capacity to serve as both a force for good and for evil in violent conflict situations. However, experiences have shown that many of those involved in violent conflict situations have used religion or ethnic identities to rally support, justify their actions and proclaim a “moral superiority” over others (Bakwesegha, 1997).

Nigeria has recorded bitter experiences of violent conflicts in various forms and ethno-religious conflicts in particular. Since the early 1980s, ethnic and religious crises have become a re-occurring decimal, especially in northern Nigeria. Amongst the 19 states that constitute Northern Nigeria, there is virtually none that has not witnessed one form of conflict or the other. The spate of violence has been on a steady increase. Some of the conflicts include: Maitatsine crises in Kano, 1980, Zuru 1980, Maiduguri 1982, Yola 1984, Ilorin 1984, Bauchi 1984 and Kano 1984. Others are the crises in Kafanchan 1987, Gure Kahugu 1987, Birnin Kebbi 1990, Katsina 1991, Tafawa Balewa 1991, Kano 1991, Jalingo 1992, Kaduna Polytechnic 1992, Kasuwar Magani (Kaduna) 1994, Kaduna 2000, Jos 2001, Kano 2001, Tafawa Balewa (since 2000) and Nasarawa 2001, Jos 2004, 2008 and 2010. There have also been the Chamba-Kuteb crises in Taraba State 2013, Tiv-Jukun crisis 2013, Bassa- Igbira crisis in Toto 2012 and a host of others. Ikenga Metuh identified three broad types of religious conflicts, namely: …intra-religious which occur between different denominations or sects; inter-religious conflicts prevalent between adherents of different religious beliefs, but capable of assuming socio-ethnic dimension; and inter-religious conflicts which though have socio-economic origin end up in the form of religious conflicts (Ogidan, 2013).
In the last three decades alone, Nigeria has witnessed so many incidences of ethno-religiously based violent conflicts that it is difficult to keep proper track of the number. These violent occurrences have resulted in the destruction of lives and property worth several trillions of naira. As a result, many have lost their lives while many more have suffered injuries including permanent disabilities.

In the face of these recurrent ethno-religious conflicts, how can Nigeria attain sustainable social, economic and political development? What are the causes of these ethno-religious conflicts? What can be done to reduce and prevent these persistent violent conflicts and sufferings, death and destruction that attend these violent conflicts? Conflicts do not lend themselves to easy solutions as “a given conflict encompasses both manifest and hidden cause” (Agbese, 2010). Unless the complexity of violent conflicts is discovered and understood, no meaningful conflict management can be achieved. Therefore, it becomes important to assess the role of socio-cultural groups in conflict resolution in Nigeria particularly in Kaduna State.
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