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Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial properties of the leaf extract of waltheria indica (UHALOA)

Type Project Topics
Faculty Sciences
Course Microbiology
Price ₦3,000
Key Features:
- No of Pages: 44

- No of Chapters: 5

- Approved by a supervisor
Introduction:

Abstract



Waltheria indica is said to be one of the medicines used for treatment of diseases such as diarrhea, malaria, fever etc. in most part of the world especially Hawaii. It is against this background that the plant was used to check for phytochemicak compositions and antimicrobial activity. the phytochemical screening carried out indicates the presence of saponin, tannin, flavotannin, terpenoid, and volatile oils in both methanolic and aqueous extracts. Alkanoid and glycsides were absent in both methanolic and aqeous extract of the leaf. Anthraquinone is only absent in the methanolic extract but present in the aqeous extract of the leaf. the leaf extract showed significantly varying inhibitory activities against the test organisms as evidenced by the zone of inhibition (p>0.5). The leaf extract was found to be active against all test organisms but but the degree varies from one test organism to another. The thin layer chromathography shows different pattern of elution and this indicates the variation of the polar and non polar active biological compounds found in the extract.



Table of Content

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE-----------------------------------------------i



DEDICATION---------------------------------------------ii



CERTIFICATION------------------------------------------iii



DECLARATION-------------------------------------------iv



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT---------------------------------v



ABSTRACT------------------------------------------------vi



LIST OF TABLE-------------------------------------------vii



TABLE OF CONTENT-----------------------------------viii



CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INRODUCTION-------------------------------------1



1.1 Statement of the problem----------------------5



1.2 Significant of study--------------------------------7



1.3 Aims and objectives-------------------------------7



1.4 Scope and limitation of study------------------8



CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Historical use of plant as antimicrobials-----9



2.2 The development of phytomedicines andthe ethnomedical approach-----------------------------11



2.3 present use of plants as antimicrobials-----13



2.4 therapeutic benefit of plant--------------------14



2.5 description of the experimental plant-watheria indica-----------------------------------------------------16



2.5.1 the botanic description of the plant-------16



2.5.1.1 description of waltheria indica-------------17



2.5.1.2 Habitat and geographical range of watheria indica-------------------------------------------------------17



2.5.1.3 propagation of waltheria indica--------------17



2.5.2 medicinal use of waltheria indica-------------18



2.5.3 traditional use of waltheria flower------------19



2.5.4 A biological actovity of waltheria indica-----20



2.5.5 Ethnopharmacological relevance of waktheria indica---------------------------------------------------------21



2.5.6 evaliation of waltheria indica aerial parts extracts for analysis and anti-inflammatory activities------23



CHAPTER THREE

3.0 materials and method-----------------------------25



3.1 study area--------------------------------------------25



3.2 collection and identification of plant materials--25



3.3 Sterilization------------------------------------------26



3.4 media preparation---------------------------------26



3.5 collection of test organisms----------------------27



3.6 prepation of the treatment samples----------27



3.7 extraction procedure-----------------------------27



3.8 extract sterilization-------------------------------28



3.9 photochemical screening of waltheria indica extracts----------------------------------------------------28



3.9.1 test for alkaloids---------------------------------29



3.9.2 test for saponins---------------------------------29



3.9.3 test for tannins----------------------------------29



3.9.4 test for flavanoids------------------------------30



3.9.5 test for phlobatannin--------------------------30



3.9.6 test for terpenoids-----------------------------30



3.9.7 test for reducing sugar------------------------31



3.9.8 fehling test for glycosides---------------------31



3.9.9 test for volatile oil------------------------------31



3.9.10 test for anthraquinones---------------------32



3.10 preparation of extract concentration------32



3.11 confirmation of the test organisms--------33



3.11.1 Staphylococcus aureus----------------------33



3.11.2 Escherichia coli--------------------------------33



3.11.3 pseudomonas spp----------------------------34



3.12 Extract antimicrobial activity testing-------34



3.13 procedure for thin layer chromatography-35



3.14 procedure for column chromatography----35



3.15 Statistical analysis-------------------------------37



CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result-------------------------------------------------38



4.1 Physical characteristics of Waltheria indica-38



4.2 phytochemical screening of Waltheria indica-38



4.3 Zone diameter of inhibition (MM)---------------39



4.4 TLC Result----------------------------------------------40



Introduction

This project was was conducted by the aforementioned writer and approved by a supervisor @UNIVERSITY OF ABUJA, FCT ABUJA, 2014. The work is basically on plant as antimicrobials-waltheria indica (uhaloa) precisely called.
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