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Impact of Abattoir Effluent on the Quality of Asata and Owo Streams in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria

Type Project Topics (docx)
Faculty Engineering, Environment & Technology
Course Geography
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Key Features:
No. of pages: 144
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Abstract:
Abattoir activities are accompanied by some negative influence on the environment if not properly managed. The impact of abattoir effluent on the quality of Asata and Owo (a tributary to Asata) streams in Enugu was studied. Field observation revealed that the inhabitants of the study area make use of the stream water. Two sets of questionnaire were administered. Hundred copies of one set of questionnaire was administered to the people downstream to obtain information on the various uses they put the stream water to while a copy was administered to the medical personnel at the only hospital in the study area to obtain information on the occurrence of water related diseases. Both the raw abattoir effluent and water samples from upstream and downstream of effluent discharge points of the streams collected in January (dry season) and July (rainy season), 2015 were tested for Temperature, Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, pH, TDS, TSS, Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate, Iron, Sodium, BOD, COD, DO, E.coli and Total coliform. The result of abattoir effluent analysis revealed its pollution potential as it had TDS, Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate and BOD higher than that of the FMENV maximum limit for effluent discharge into surface water. Water samples were collected from six different points. The analysis was done in rainy (July) and dry (January) seasons of 2015 so as to reflect seasonal changes in water quality. The t-test result between upstream and downstream points of the abattoirs showed no significant difference (p>0.05), but the highest concentrations of turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, TDS, Phosphate, Nitrate, BOD, COD, DO, E.coli and Total coliform were obtained at the points of effluent discharge into Asata and Owo streams. Meanwhile, Nitrate, COD and E.coli (Asata stream) and TDS, Nitrate, COD, E.coli and Total coliform (Owo stream) individually contributed to more than 50% to the pollution load of the two streams during the rainy season while in dry season Turbidity, Nitrate and COD (Asata stream) and TDS, Chloride, Phosphate and COD (Owo stream) had more than 50% to the pollution load of the two streams. The student‘t’ test result showed significant difference (p
Table of Content:
Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………...i

Certification…………………………………………………………………………………ii

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………...iii

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………….……………...iv

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………..viii

List of Figures ……………………………………………………………………………....ix

List of Plates………………………………………………………………………………....xi

List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………...xii

List of Acronyms…………………………………………………………………………….xiii

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………...xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study……………………………………………….….……………..1

1.2 Statement of the Research Problems…………...………………………………………...4

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study……….……………………………………….……......5

1.4 Study Area…………………………………………………………………………….......5

1.4.1 Location………………………………………………………………………………..5

1.4.2 Climate ………………………………………………………………………………..6

1.4.3 Relief and Drainage …………………………………….…………………………….8

1.4.4 Vegetation and Soil ………………………………………………….………………..9

1.4.5 Population ……………………………………………………………………………..9

1.4.6 Economic Activities …………………………………………………………….….…10

1.4.6.1 History of the New Artisan Market……………………………………………………10

1.4.6.2 The Abattoirs and their Activities……………………………………………………..11

1.5 Literature Review………………………………………….…………………………..14

1.6 Theoretical Framework……………………………….……………………………….26

1.6.1 Miasmic Theory of Disease………………………….………………………………26

1.6.2 The Environmental Theory……………………….…………………………………27

1.6.3 The Germ Theory of Disease……………………….………………………………30

1.7 Research Methodology……………………………….……………………………31

1.7.1 Research Design……………………………….……………………………………31

1.7.2 Field Observation…………………………….……………………………………..31

1.7.3 Sample Points Selection……………………….……………………………………31

1.7.4 Sample Points Description…………………….……………………………………34

1.7.5 Water Sample Collection…………………….………………………………………35

1.7.6 Abattoir Wastewater Sample Collection………………………………………………35

1.7.7 In-Situ Analysis of Water and Wastewater Samples…………………………………36

1.7.8 Sample Preservation …………………….……………………………………………36

1.7.9 Choice of Water Quality Parameters…….……………………………………………36

1.7.10 Laboratory Analysis of Water and Wastewater Samples...……………………………43

1.7.11 Questionnaire Administration…………………………………….……………………48

1.7.12 Validation of the Instruments…………………………………….……………………49

1.7.13 Reliability of the Instruments…………………………………….……………………49

1.7.14 Secondary Data…………………………………….…………………...........................50

1.7.15 Data Analysis…………………………………….………………….............................50

1.8 Plan of the Project………………….…………………………………...............................51

CHAPTER TWO: DESCRIPTION OFASATA AND OWO STREAMS AND THEIR USES

2.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………52

2.1 Asata Stream ……………………………………………………………………………52

2.1.1 Uses of Asata Stream …………………………………………………………… …53

2.2 Owo Stream……………………………………………………………………………55

2.2.1 Uses of Owo Stream…………………………………………………………………55

CHAPTER THREE: WATER QUALITY CHANGES DUE TO ABATTOIR EFFLUENT

DISCHARGE

3.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………57

3.1 The Nature of Abattoir Effluent………………………………………………………57

3. 2 Impact of Abattoir Effluent on the Quality of Asata and Owo Streams………………59

3.2.1 Temperature …………………………………………………………………………60

3.2.2 Turbidity………………………………………………………………………………61

3.2.3 Electrical Conductivity………………………………………………………………62

3.2.4 pH……………………………………………………………………………………63

3.2.5 Total Dissolved Solids………………………………………………………………64

3.2.6 Total Suspended Solids………………………………………………………………65

3.2.7 Chloride………………………………………………………………………………66

3.2.8 Sulphate………………………………………………………………………………67

3.2.9 Phosphate……………………………………………………………………………68

3.2.10 Nitrate………………………………………………………………………………70

3.2.11 Iron……………………………………………………………………………………71

3.2.12 Sodium………………………………………………………………………………72

3.2.13 Biological Oxygen Demand…………………………………………………………73

3.2.14 Chemical Oxygen Demand…………………………………………………………74

3.2.15 Dissolved Oxygen…………………………………………………………………75

3.2.16 E.coli………………………………………………………………………………76

3.2.17 Total coliform………………………………………………………………………77

3.3 Comparison of Water Quality Parameters between Upstream and Downstream Sections in Rainy and Dry Seasons……………………………………………………………………78

3.3.1 Comparison between the Rainy Season Upstream and Downstream 1 ………………78

3.3.2 Comparison between the Rainy Season Upstream and Downstream 2 ………………79

3.3.3 Comparison between the Dry Season Upstream and Downstream 1 ……………………..79

3.3.4 Comparison between the Dry Season Upstream and Downstream 2 ……………………80

3.4 Comparison of Water Quality Parameters between Asata Upstream and Owo Upstream in Rainy and Dry Seasons………………………………………………………………………….81

CHAPTER FOUR: SEASONAL VARIATIONS ON THE QUALITY OF THE TWO STREAMS

4.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………….83

4.1 Seasonal Variations in the Parameters………………………………………………… 83

4.1.1 Variation in Temperature…………………………………………………………… 83

4.1.2 Variation in Turbidity……………………………………………………………… 85

4.1.3 Variation in Electrical Conductivity …………………………………………………85

4.1.4 Variation in pH……………………………………………………………………… 86

4.1.5 Variation in Total Dissolved Solids………………………………………………… 87

4.1.6 Variation in Total Suspended Solids ………………………………………………. 88

4.1.7 Variation in Chloride ………………………………………………………………. 88

4.1.8 Variation in Sulphate……………………………………………………………….. 89

4.1.9 Variation in Phosphate ……………………………………………………………… 90

4.1.10 Variation in Nitrate……………………………………………………………….. 90

4.1.11 Variation in Iron ………………………………………………………………….. 91

4.1.12 Variation in Sodium………………………………………………………………. 92

4.1.13 Variation in BOD ………………………………………………………………… 93

4.1.14 Variation in COD…………………………………………………………………. 93

4.1.15 Variation in DO…………………………………………………………………… 94

4.1.16 Variation in E.coli………………………………………………………………….. 95

4.1.17 Variation in Total coliform…………………………………………………………. 95

CHAPTER FIVE: ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF THE

PARAMETERS

5.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 98

5.1.1 Implication of Temperature………………………………………………………… 98

5.1.2 Implication of Turbidity……………………………………………………………. 98

5.1.3 Implication of TDS………………………………………………………………… 98

5.1.4 Implication of Phosphate…………………………………………………………… 99

5.1.5 Implication of Nitrate……………………………………………………………… 99

5.1.6 Implication of Iron………………………………………………………………… 99

5.1.7 Implication of BOD……………………………………………………………….. 99

5.1.8 Implication of DO………………………………………………………………… 99

5.1.9 Implication of E.coli………………………………………………………………. 99

5.1.10 Implication of Total coliform……………………………………………………… 100

5.2 Occurrence of Water Related Diseases in the Study Area ………………………… 100

CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Summary of Research Findings …………………………………………………… 101

6.2 Recommendations….……….…..………….……….…………………….…………….. 102

6.3 Conclusion ……….…..………….……….………………………………………………. 102

REFERENCES…………..…….…..………….……….……………………………………….. 104

APPENDICES……….…….…..………….……….…………………….………………………. 117
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