- No of Pages: 62
- No of Chapters: 5
- Well Detailed
The study investigated effect of Puzzle Game strategy in teaching Basic Science concept among junior secondary two students. A sample of 50 JSS 2 Basic Science students were randomly selected made up of 26 male and 24 female, pre – tested and categorized into experimental and control groups. The subjects in the experimental group were taught living things and non living things using the Puzzle Game teaching strategy and their achievement were compared with that of the control group who were taught same concept using lecture method. Pretest and post test data were analyzed to determine the group equivalence and achievement of the students in the experimental and the control groups. Three hypotheses were tested using Analysis Covariance (ANCOVA) of P-value 0.00 which is less than 0.05 level of significant and an eta square value of 0.749. The following major findings were made: Students exposed to Puzzle Game teaching strategy i.e. (Experimental group) achieved significantly higher than their counterparts taught using lecture method.
Table of Content:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITTLE PAGE - - - - - - - i
DECLEARATION - - - - - - - ii
APPROVALPAGE - - - - - - - iii
DEDICATION - - - - - - - iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS - - - - - - v
LIST OF TABLE - - - - - - - vi
CHAPTER ONE - - - - - - - 1
INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THESTUDY - - - - - 2
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM- - - - - 3
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY - - - - - 4
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS - - - - - 5
RESEARCHHYPOTHESES - - - - - 6
1.6SIGNIFICANCEOFTHESTUDY - - - - - 7
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY - - - - - 8
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY - - - - - 9
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS - - - - - - 10
CHAPTER TWO - - - - - - - 11
REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE - - - - 11 2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BASIC SCIENCE - - 12
2.2 OBJECTIVES AND PHILOSOPHY OF BASIC SCIENCE - - 13
2.3THE BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM - 14
2.4THEOBJECTIVES OF BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM - - - - - - - 15
2.5 THE STRUCTURE AND FEATURES OF BASIC SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CURRICULUM - - - - - 16
2.6THE CONCEPT OF PUZZLE - - - - - 17
2.7 THE TYPES OF PUZZLE - - - - - 18
2.7.1 SLIDDING PUZZLE - - - - - - 19
2.7.2 JIGSAW PUZZLE - - - - - - 20
2.8 OVERVIEW OF PUZZLE GAME IN EDUCATION - - - 21
2.9 GENDER AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE - 22
CHAPTER THREE - - - - - - - 23
INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - 23
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN - - - - - - 24
3.2 PROCEDURES FOR DATA COLLECTION - - - - 25
3.3 POPULATION AND SAMPLE OFSTUDY - - - - 26
3.4 SAMPLE TECHNIQUES - - - - - - 27
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION - - - - 28
3.6 INSTRUMENT ADMINISTRATION - - - - 29
3.7 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE - - - - 30
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - 31
4.2 HYPOTHESES TESTING - - - - - - 32
4.3 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS - - - - - - 33
CHAPTER FIVE: - - - - - - - 34
5.1 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - 35
5.2 SUMMARY - - - - - - - 36
5.3 MAJOR FINDINGS - - - - - - - 37
5.4 CONCLUSIONS - - - - - - - 38
5.5 RECOMMENDATIONS - - - - - - 39
5.6 LIMITATIONS - - - - - - - 40
5.7 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES - - - - 41
REFERENCES - - - - - - - 42
APPENDIX I: (BSAT) - - - - - - 43
APPENDIX II: MAKING SCHEME TO BSAT - - - - 44
APPENDIX III: LESSON PLAN - - - - - 45
APPENDIX IV: STUDENTS RAW SCORES - - - - 46
Science is a body of organized knowledge and a process of inquiry that is geared towards understanding nature in order to enhance the living standard of man. Many scientists define science according to their own perception and understanding of the subject matter. (Bichi, 2002) defines science as intellectual activities carried out by scientists designed to discover information about the natural world in which humans live and to discover ways in which this information can be organized to benefit human race. In this respect, the primary focus of science is to collect data and the ultimate purpose is to discern order that exists in natural phenomena and happenings around us.
At the junior secondary school level Basic science and Technology was introduced for the purpose of giving foundation skills and knowledge for subsequent science studies at the higher level (Isa, 2000). Integrated science was later changed to basic science and Technology respectively. The acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society in which he lives, has been a major concern of Basic science and Technology. The subject views nature in a holistic approach and this makes it a discipline in its own right. The foregoing definitions show that science is not just a collection of data and facts neither is it an assemblage of sterile body of knowledge but that, it involves engaging learners in certain activities as well (Isa, 2000).
Integrated science ( now known as Basic Science and Technology) was introduced into Nigerian secondary schools in 1972 at the junior secondary school level as a result of the outcome of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) Committee set up to look into the three (3) sciences i.e. Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The program has been in existence for forty (40) years. Recently, there was a trend from Integrated Science to Basic science and Technology following the Nigeria Educational Research and Development Councils (2007) decision to re-structure the Basic Education Programme to the 9-year Basic Education Programme in order to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. It became imperative that the existing curricula for primary and JSS should be reviewed, restructured and realigned to fit a 9-year basic education programme and the upper basic education curriculum is for JSS 1-3 level. Basic Science and Technology is generally geared towards technological development and appropriate strategy for the acquisition of relevant skills needed for meaningful learning of science concepts.
One major problem of the teachers is their inability to use appropriate teaching strategies. They often resort to traditional, lecture method that has been shown to lead to poor academic achievement in junior secondary schools.(Maduabun, 1990; Akale, 1992; Usman, 2007).Inspite of the Federal Government of Nigeria’s encouragement in the teaching of science in Nigerian schools by providing both moral and financial support, such as the establishment of National Science and Technology Fund (1998). National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria [FRN], 2014). Science is still presented to pupils as facts that young people are expected to memorize, thus less emphasis is placed on science processes and practical application of science which makes science more relevant to the needs and aspiration of the society]. Fisher (2001) feels that science suffers from pedagogical deficiency as a result of which most people cannot see the connection between the scientific knowledge they learn and daily life. Mari (1994) observed that science subjects are taught in Nigerian schools today predominantly by using the traditional method, commonly known as lecture method. Isa (2000) observed that “most science teachers do not encourage student’s active participation in the teaching process. Bichi (2002) compared the effectiveness of problem solving teaching method with traditional method in promoting students’ academic achievements in evolution concept, and found that the former was more effective than the latter. The use of inappropriate teaching strategy and lack of adequate instructional materials have been a major challenge to effective teaching of the subject. The poor performance in science subjects is partly as a result of the way in which the teachers teach the subject (Barker, Slingsby, & Tilling, (2003).
This study investigates effect of puzzle game strategy on junior secondary school two students achievement in Basic and Technology. Literature also shows that 70% of scientific information or principles are passed to students via the lecture methods by science teachers (Bichi, 2002). This has been observed to be responsible for poor achievement in Basic Science and Technology over the years (Bichi, 2002). Though, lecture method makes coverage of syllabus easy and lesson planning for a wide audience easier, it is however viewed by majority of science educators as inadequate in promoting meaningful learning among all categories of learners (Bichi, 2002). This general call for teaching strategies could radically enhance meaningful learning and acquisition of science skills. The Puzzle Game teaching strategy is being suggested in this study. Science is a universal vehicle for human development and civilization world-wide. Basic science teaching is best carried out by the involvement of students while the teacher serves as a facilitator. Stanley (2007) says several researches carried out for the improvement of students’ academic achievement in science did not solve the problem as a result of teacher’s persistence in the lecture method in teaching of Basic Science. Barker, Slingsby, Tilling, (2003) and Usman (2000) observed that indiscriminate use of lecture method still persists which has led to poor achievement of junior secondary school students. Against this background, this study was conducted in order to find a lasting solution to student’s poor achievement in Basic Science and Technology.
Puzzle game is a unique gaming genre that focuses on solving puzzles. It tests the player’s problem-solving skills that include pattern recognition, word completion, sequence solving, and logic. Some games have a time limit, while other games provide players with unlimited time and attempts. The history of the puzzle game goes back to the puzzles and brainteasers throughout the centuries.
The use of puzzle in science lessons has attracted the attention of educational researchers in their various studies. Game and picture appeal so much to children that they like to be engaged with them. This concept (puzzle) in conjunction with science process skills (observing, recording, inferring, etc), that is, inquiry method, have been found effective in teaching and learning of Basic Science. Concerted effort to make science lessons and science related activities and concepts interesting and participatory has always being the major focus of educational research. Interest prepares learners mind for science learning. But, unfortunately, interests of students in science tasks seem to be disappearing and almost going into extinction. This reason may be the way science is taught. One of the possible ways to making Science teaching and learning effective through the use puzzle game strategy.
It’s been information time and again that children retain more information when they’re stimulated by and actively involved in the learning process. Interactive teaching has become increasingly popular and new tools and ideas for enhancing lesson plans are appearing every day. A effective way to get students interested in learning Basic Science and Technology is to bring the fun back into the subject by using educational games and one of it is puzzle game strategy.