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This study primarily focuses on the potential of using remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) technologies for crime mapping and attendant management in enhancement of tight security. Criminal activities are common features of urban areas in Nigeria. Without adequate security as in advanced countries for enabling peaceful environment to achieve the eight-point agenda of millennium development goal (MDG) adopted by the government, is a nullity. It has been observed that a large portion of the men in the Nigerian police can hardly ascertain the area of jurisdiction within their station or could define the shortest distance en-route station to specific crime areas in Owerri, Imo state, the study area. Thus, the police are far from being well and evenly distributed according to geographic spread, population characteristics or crime incidence. Owerri, covering an area of 104 km2 and with a population of 401873 persons, is the capital of Imo State of Nigeria, and hosts five tertiary institutions each with a population of over 30,000 students. Crime surveillance and monitoring system/network in Owerri is highly undeveloped, while the local police and other security agencies appear ill-equipped to face the dynamism and complexity of crimes. This study applied geospatial data which was geocoded using the geographic coordinate system. The results revealed the crime hotspots and the crime Coldspots with Police station. The result also presented the shortest route to all the crime hotspots. The results showed the service area of the security agencies from the buffer generalization and the proximity or distance from each security office or checkpoints to all crime hotspots. The project recommends siting police stations at identified locations to ensure quick and prompt response by security agencies.
Table of Content:
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 3
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5
1.3.1 AIM 5
1.3.2 OBJECTIVES 5
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 5
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY 5
1.6 LIMITATIONS 7
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY 8
CHAPTER TWO 9
LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 INTRODUCTION 9
2.2 GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE OF CRIME MAPPING. 9
2.3 CRIME MAPPING IN NIGERIA 13
2.4 GEOSPATIAL TECHNIQUES AND CRIME MAPPING 16
2.4.1. The Geographic Analysis Machine 16
2.4.2. The Geographical Explanations Machine 18
2.5 SPATIAL PERSPECTIVES ON CRIME 20
2.6 TOOLS IN THE SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF CRIME 21
2.7 CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE 26
CHAPTER THREE 28
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 28
3.1 INTRODUCTION 28
3.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 28
3.3 PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA. 31
3.4 TOOLS OF DATA ANALYSIS (SOFTWARE USED) 32
3.5 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS 33
CHAPTER FOUR 34
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 34
4.1 RESULTS OF DATA ANALYSIS 34
4.2 CRIME DISTRIBUTION MAP 34
4.3 CRIME HOTSPOT MAPS 35
4.4 CRIME COLD SPOT MAPS 38
4.5 CRIME HOTSPOTS AND POLICE DIVISIONAL STATIONS MAP 39
4.6 SHORTEST PATH BEST ROUTE ANALYSIS 40
4.6.1 Network Routing Implementation 41
CHAPTER FIVE 43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 43
5.1 SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS 43
5.2 CONCLUSIONS 44
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 44
Crime is one of the continuous problems that bedevil the existence of mankind. Since early days, crime had been a disturbing threat to his personality, property and lawful authority (Louis et al, 1981). The relationship between crime and evolution of mankind is considered a historical one as Cain (first son of Adam and Eve) committed the first violent crime when he murdered his brother Abel because of jealousy (Hafiz and Muhammad, 2011). Today, in the modern complex world, the situation is most highly disturbing. Crime started in the primitive days as a simple and less organized issue, and ended today as very complex and organized. Therefore, the existence of crime and its problems have spanned the history of mankind. Due to the complex nature of the subject of crime, its causes and consequences, various academic disciplines such as criminology, sociology, geography, psychology and demography study it from their own perspective (Hafiz and Muhammad, 2010).
This study involves manipulation and processing of spatially referenced crime data in order to visually display it in an output that is informative to the particular user (Bowers et al, 2001).
However, Australian Bureau of statistics (2003) states that crime is a multifaceted concept that can be defined in legal and non-legal sense. From a legal point of view, it refers to breaches of the criminal laws that govern particular geographic areas (jurisdictions) and are aimed at protecting the lives, property and rights of citizens within those jurisdictions. Most of the crimes with which the criminal justice system is concerned involve breaches of State/Territory legislation that cover most offences relating to persons (for example, murder and sexual assault), property (for example, theft and property damage) and regulation (for example, traffic violations).
On the other hand, non-legal point of view would define crime as acts that violate socially accepted rules of human ethical or moral behaviour. As the moral principles that underpin the notion of crime are subject to gradual change over time, the types of behaviour defined by the legal system as criminal may also change. Examples of behaviours that have been de-criminalized in some jurisdictions include prostitution, abortion, attempted suicide and homosexual intercourse. Other behaviours, such as tax evasion or credit card fraud, have been criminalized over time (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2003).
Crime mapping as defined by Boba (2005), is the process of using a Geographic Information System to conduct spatial analysis of crime and disorder problems as well as other police-related issues.
For further emphasis, crime mapping involves the manipulation and processing of spatially referenced crime data in order to display visually in an output that is informative to the particular user (Alex and Kate 2001). Chainey and Ratcliffe (2005) went further to show how The United States’ National Institute of Justice championed the use of crime mapping in other countries like the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa and across South America. Applications of crime mapping include recording and mapping police activity, information dissemination in the police force, identifying hotspots, monitoring the impact of crime reduction initiatives and aiding decision making in resource allocation.
This study therefore reveals the locations within the study area that are crime hotspots and areas that are Coldspots. Therefore, this project is a baseline study for security agencies for management of crime incidence in the study area. The study therefore adopts the concept of remote sensing and GIS technologies for mapping crime incidence and reveal areas of crime hotspot and safe zone areas.