- No of Pages: 59
- No of Chapters: 5
- Well detailed
Imaging facilities within the Port Harcourt metropolis are ever on the increase, imaging practitioners are constantly trained and deployed into the work force. An issue constantly facing the imaging and radiology practice is the issue of work safety. Against this background, this study specifically aims at assessing safety measures employed in the design and construction of imaging centres in the Port Harcourt metropolis. A case study design was employed to investigate into 3 imaging facilities within the Port Harcourt metropolis, data was collected using a question and some 15 respondents across the 3 facilities (5 per facility) where sampled. There was 100% response with respect to the completion of data collection instrument. Findings show a relative compliance to radiation safety principles and guidelines, as some guidelines and principles where upheld while others were not. It was recommended that there should be strict supervision of the design and construction of imaging facilities to ensure that NNRA and IAEA guidelines are closely adhered to, also, periodic assessment of workers is encouraged as well as creating awareness on radiation safety guidelines and principles to ensure occupational safety.
Table of Content:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents vii-x
List of Tables xi
1.1. Background to study 1-5
1.2. Statement of problem 6-7
1.3. Research objectives 7
1.4. Research Questions 8
1.5. Scope of Study 8
1.6. Significance of Study 8-9
2.1. Production of X-ray 10-13
2.2. X-ray interaction 14-16
2.3. Health effects of radiation 16
2.4. Radiation protection Quantities and Units 17-20
2.5. Principles of radiation protection 20-24
2.6. Specifications for X-ray room design 24-28
2.7. Empirical Review 29-30
3.1. Research Design 31
3.2. Population of Study 31-32
3.3. Study area 32
3.4. Sampling size and Sampling Technique 32-33
3.5. Instrument for Data collection 33
3.6. Data analysis and procedure 33
Results and discussion 34-43
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Summary 44-45
5.2. Conclusion 46-47
5.3. Recommendations 47-48
LIST OF TABLES
2.1. Radiation Weighting Factors 18
2.2. Tissue Weighting Factors 19
2.3. IAEA Dose Limits for Radiation Workers and Public 24
4.1. Social and Demographic Data 34
4.2. Specific Safety Measures upheld by facilities 36
4.3. Adherence to NNRA and IAEC guidelines with respect to design, construction and use of Imaging facility 40
X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. Radiations can be conveniently categorized into charged particulate radiations (fast electrons and heavy particles) and uncharged radiations (electromagnetic radiations and neutrons). Radiation can also be classified as ionizing or non-ionizing. Ionizing radiation is further classified into directly ionizing and indirectly ionizing (IAEA, 2005).
X-ray which is the radiation of interest in this research is an electromagnetic and uncharged radiation. It was discovered by a German professor of Physics Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen on 8 November, 1895 while he was working with a cathode ray generator (Gail, 2012). When electrons are accelerated to energies in excess of 5 keV and are directed on to a target surface, xrays are emitted. The emitted radiation originates principally from rapid deceleration of the electrons when they interact with the nucleus of the target atoms. These x-trays are referred to as bremsstrahlung. The second sets of x-rays are characteristic in nature and are produced when the fast beam of electrons from the cathode displaces the electrons in the K-orbits of the target atoms.
All X-rays exhibit the following properties (Andy, 2008):
Fluorescence: visible lights are produced by phosphors;
Photographic effects: a photographic film can be forged when exposed to x-rays
Penetration: X-rays have the ability to penetrate opaque substances
Ionization and Excitation: The ability of x-ray to raise an electron to a higher energy level in an atom or eject it completely from the atom forms the basis for most of its properties.
Chemical changes: X-rays can effect chemical changes when they pass through substances.
Biological effects: Biological effects of x-rays on living tissues can be directly or indirectly. In direct effect the x-ray energy ionizes a biological macromolecule essential for survival and reproduction of the cell. In indirect effects, the x-ray energy ionizes water molecule to produce hydrogen (H*) and hydroxyl (OH*) free radicals respectively which further produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2*) which are poisonous to the cell (Gail, 2012). The cell may be killed or its reproduction may cease consequently.