(a) List three features of the Igbo Political system.
(b)Identify four democratic tenets of the Igbo Traditional Political system.
(a) (i) Religious and Judicial control: The village priest/ diviner wielded a great deal of religious and judicial powers.
(ii) Leadership: Succession to leadership and to prominence was based on personal achievements
(iii) Bonds and Unity: Deities are of political significance in providing bonds and unity.
(iv) Market Square: It served as the village chambers.
(v) Socio-political group: The women (Umuada) composed of the first daughter of each family, constituted a socio-political group.
(vi) Banishment: Banishment from the village and escort of such people into the evil forest was the maximum judicial punishment.
(vii) New yam festival: This was religiously marked, honoured and celebrated annually.
(viii) Decentralized administration: Different authorities, groups and institutions took part in the administration.
(b) (I) The executive: the affairs of the village were discussed and executed from time to time by family heads (council of elders) who formed the executive arm
(ii) The legislature: The people in this society made laws themselves, and even the age-grades could enact a law that would be accepted by the elders.
(iii) The judiciary: The family heads championed the settlement of disputes between families, Serious cases were referred to the council of elders presided over by the Okpara and penalties were meted out to those who committed serious offenses like murder, stealing, etc.
(iv) The Ozo titleholders: Some wealthy and influential men took this title which was very expensive. This title made the holder recognized in the society and could then preside over meetings on issues affecting the community with elders.
(v) Consensus: Critical issues before the authorities at the village assembly were reached by consensus.
(vi) Council of elders: There was the existence of a council of elders (Ama-ala) presided over by the eldest son in the village.
(vii) Value of individual personality: In a democracy, the belief in the value of individual personality is restored. It implies the need to respect the other man, to listen to his arguments and take into account his point of view.