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1988 WAEC Agricultural Science Practical The diagram below represents an incubator. Study it carefully and use it to answer questions...

Agricultural Science
WAEC 1988

The diagram below represents an incubator. Study it carefully and use it to answer questions (a) - (e).

(a) List four components of the incubator.

(b) Explain two problems that can affect the proper functioning of any two of the components listed in (a).

(c) State three steps that should be taken to ensure that the eggs hatch at about the same time.

(d)(i) State the type of housing system adopted for breeding fowls to ensure a high rate of egg fertility.
(ii) Give reason for your answer.

(e) State two activities normally carried out by the farmer in the hatchery after hatching

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Explanation

(a) Components of the incubator are:

  • heat source
  • lantern,
  • heater,
  • Electric heater.
  • Control unit
  • damper and thermostat.
  • heat distribution unit.
  • relative humidity mediation unit
  • basin of water
  • cotton wool
  • humidifier.
  • felt tray (to hold eggs and reduces cracking),
  • Egg rack,
  • Egg tray.
  • thermometer to detect degree of hotness and coldness
  • air circulation unit vents for ventilation and fan.
  • Egg turming device,
  • Insulator.

(b) Problem of functioning components: Electrical incubator:

  • Power failure
  • Iregular power supply.

For Kerosene Heat:

  • High / low voltage/ current

For Thermostat:

  • High / low voltage/ current.

For Fan:

  • Irregular power supply; Overheating caused by over-usage. Loose nuts of the parts; improper lubrication of the movable parts.

For Thermometer:

  • Cracking or breakage of the bulb/thermometer and loss of sensitivity.

For Ventilation:

  • Blockage of vents, Water Basin - Leakage, Dryíng-up of water content.

Insulator:

  • Puncturing of the insulator unit turning devices for egg tray, Lubrication of the movable joints/ parts, Loose nuts.

(C) Efforts to ensure uniformity of hatching:

  • setting eggs uniformly in the tray,
  • timely and regular turning of eggs,
  • ensure suitable environmental conditions
  • temperature, ventilation, and relative humidity.
  • proper handling of the eggs,
  • setting eggs at the same time,
  • holding period of egg before setting ( not more than 14 days).

(d) The housing type that ensures a high rate of egg fertility is Deep litter.

Reasons: mating of birds is regular and without hindrance.

(e) Activities to be carried out after hatching are-

  • sexing of chicks;
  • dryíng of chicks and intra -ocular.
  • NDV vaccination,
  • sorting out abnormal chicks and packing.

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