### what is calorimeter?

what is calorimeter?

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A calorimeter is a device used to measure
the heat flow of a chemical reaction or
physical change. The process of measuring
this heat is called calorimetry. A basic
calorimeter consists of a metal container of
water above a combustion chamber, in
which a thermometer is used to measure
the change in water temperature. However,
there are many types of more complex
calorimeters.
The basic principle is that heat released by
the combustion chamber increases the
temperature of the water in a measurable
way. The temperature change may then be
used to calculate the enthalpy change per
mole of substance A when substances A
and B are reacted.
The equation used is:
q = C (T - T )
where:
q is the amount of heat in joules
Cv is the calorimeter's heat capacity in
joules per Kelvin (J/K)
T and T are the final and initial
temperatures
Calorimeter History
The first ice calorimeters were built based
on Joseph Black's concept of latent heat,
introduced in 1761. Antoine Lavoisier
coined the term calorimeter in 1780 to
describe the apparatus he used to measure
heat from guinea pig respiration used to
melt snow. In 1782, Lavoisier and Pierre-
Simon Laplace experimented with ice
calorimeters, in which heat needed to melt
ice could be used to measure heat from
chemical reactions.
Types of Calorimeters
Calorimeters have expanded beyond the
original ice calorimeters.
always lost to the container in an
factor is applied to the calculation to
compensate for heat loss. This type of
calorimeter is used to study runaway
reactions.
Reaction calorimeter: In this type of
calorimeter, the chemical reaction
occurs within an insulated closed
container. Heatflow versus time is
measured to arrive at the reaction
heat. This is used for reactions
intended to run at a constant
temperature or to find the maximum
heat released by a reaction.
Bomb calorimeter: A bomb
calorimeter is a constant-volume
calorimeter, constructed to withstand
the pressure produced by the
reaction as it heats the air within the
container. The temperature change of
water is used to calculate the heat of
combustion.
Calvet-type calorimeter: This type of
calorimeter relies on a three-
of rings of thermocouples in series.
This type of calorimeter allows for a
larger sample size and reaction vessel
size, without sacrificing the accuracy
of the measurement. An example of a
Calvet-type calorimeter is the C80
calorimeter.
Constant-pressure calorimeter: This
instrument measure the enthalpy
change of a reaction in solution
under conditions of constant
atmospheric pressure. A common
example of this type of device is the coffee-cup calorimeter.
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A calorimeter is a device used to measure the heat flow of a chemical reaction or physical change. The process of measuring this heat is called calorimetry. A basic calorimeter consists of a metal container of water above a combustion chamber, in which a thermometer is used to measure the change in water temperature
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