Myschool CBT Challenge Season 6 - Prizes Worth N300,000 To Be Won!

What Is ATP and What Is Its Role in the Cell?

What Is ATP and What Is Its Role in the Cell?

To get notifications when anyone posts a new answer to this question,
Follow New Answers

Post an Answer

Please don't post or ask to join a "Group" or "Whatsapp Group" as a comment. It will be deleted. To join or start a group, please click here

JAMB 2020 CBT Software Agents - Click Here to Apply
JAMB 2020 CBT Software - Download Now, It's Free!

Answers (3)

Gaby
3 weeks ago
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the
energy currency of life, the way that
individual cells store and use chemical
energy. Any food or other source of energy
a cell takes in is converted to ATP, in which
form the mechanisms of the cell can easily
use it. It does this by shedding a phosphate
group, becoming adenosine diphosphate, or
ADP, a highly energetic reaction that powers
all of a cell's molecular machinery.
Adenosine triphosphate's chemical structure
contains a relatively complex carbon-based
molecule, including cyclic carbon subgroups,
but the main function comes from the
phosphate groups, or rather, the last
phosphate group, which is the one shed
when ATP provides energy to the cell. The
molecule contains three phosphate groups
in a chain. Each phosphate is bonded to four
oxygen atoms. Three of these oxygen atoms
are shared either by two phosphates or the
first phosphate and the carbon-based
group.
In animals and other eukaryotic
heterotrophs, organelles known as
mitochondria use the energy from food to
convert depleted adenosine diphosphate
back into adenosine triphosphate. This
process largely uses glucose in a process
known as the Krebs cycle. In plants,
chloroplasts, the organelles responsible for
converting light, water and carbon dioxide
into carbohydrates, also change ADP into
ATP.
mhz vee
3 weeks ago
ATP is the main source of energy for most cellular processes. The building blocks of ATP are carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Because of the presence of unstable, high-energy bonds in ATP, it is readily hydrolyzed in reactions to release a large amount of energy.

The enzymatic removal of a phosphate group from ATP to form ADP releases a huge amount of energy which is used by the cell in several metabolic processes as well as in the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins. The removal of a second phosphate group from ATP results in further energy release and the formation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP).

When energy is not needed by the organism, the phosphate group is added back to AMP and ADP to form ATP - this can be hydrolyzed later as per required. Thus, ATP functions as a reliable energy source for cellular pathways.

Functions of ATP in cells
ATP finds use in several cellular processes. Some important functions of ATP in the cell are briefly discussed below:

Active Transport

ATP plays a critical role in the transport of macromolecules such as proteins and lipids into and out of the cell. The hydrolysis of ATP provides the required energy for active transport mechanisms to carry such molecules across a concentration gradient. Transport of molecules into the cell is called endocytosis whilst transport out of the cell is known as exocytosis.

Sodium potassium pump

Cell Signaling

ATP has key functions both in intracellular and extracellular signaling. It is easily recognized by purinergic receptors in mammalian tissues - its release from synapses and axons activates purinergic receptors that modulate calcium and cyclic AMP levels inside the cell.

In the central nervous system, adenosine modulates neural development, the control of immune systems, and of neuron/glial signaling.

ATP is also involved in signal transduction - its phosphate groups are used up by kinases in phosphate transfer reactions which activate a cascade of protein kinase reactions.
The enzymatic removal of a phosphate group from ATP to form
ADP releases a huge amount of energy which is used by the
cell in several metabolic processes as well as in the synthesis
of macromolecules such as proteins. The removal of a second
phosphate group from ATP results in further energy release and
the formation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP).
When energy is not needed by the organism, the phosphate
group is added back to AMP and ADP to form ATP - this can be
hydrolyzed later as per required. Thus, ATP functions as a
reliable energy source for cellular pathways.

Functions of ATP in cells
ATP finds use in several cellular processes. Some important
functions of ATP in the cell are briefly discussed below:

Active Transport
ATP plays a critical role in the transport of macromolecules
such as proteins and lipids into and out of the cell. The
hydrolysis of ATP provides the required energy for active
transport mechanisms to carry such molecules across a
concentration gradient. Transport of molecules into the cell is
called endocytosis whilst transport out of the cell is known as
exocytosis.

Cell Signaling
ATP has key functions both in intracellular and extracellular
signaling. It is easily recognized by purinergic receptors in
mammalian tissues - its release from synapses and axons
activates purinergic receptors that modulate calcium and cyclic
AMP levels inside the cell.
In the central nervous system, adenosine modulates neural
development, the control of immune systems, and of neuron/
glial signaling.
ATP is also involved in signal transduction - its phosphate
groups are used up by kinases in phosphate transfer reactions
which activate a cascade of protein kinase reactions.

Structural Maintenance
ATP plays a very important role in preserving the structure of
the cell by helping the assembly of the cytoskeletal elements.
It also supplies energy to the flagella and chromosomes to
maintain their appropriate functioning.

Muscle contraction
ATP is critical for the contraction of muscles; it binds to myosin
to provide energy and facilitate its binding to actin to form a
cross-bridge. ADP and phosphate are then released and a new
ATP molecule binds to myosin. This breaks the cross-bridge
between myosin and actin filaments, thereby releasing myosin
for the next contraction.

Synthesis of DNA and RNA
During DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) reduces
the sugar residue from ribonucleoside diphosphates to form
deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates such as dADP.
Thus, RNR regulation helps keep the balance of
deoxynucleotides (dNTPs) in the cell. Low concentrations of
dNTPs inhibit DNA synthesis and repair whilst high levels are
shown to be mutagenic because DNA polymerase tends to add
the wrong dNTP during DNA synthesis.
The adenosine from ATP is a building block of RNA and is
directly added to RNA molecules during RNA synthesis by RNA
polymerases. The removal of pyrophosphate provides the
energy required for this reaction.

Summary
ATP is an intricate molecule that serves as an energy packet for
thousands of reactions that take place in the cells of most
organisms. Apart from humans, microorganisms also rely on
ATP for their energy needs.
ATP is a highly efficient molecular machine with a rapid turnover
of energy that makes it suitable to meet the changing energy
demands of the body. An ATP molecule is over 500 atomic
mass units (AMUs).
Even as evolutionists wonder about life before the complex ATP
molecule and alternatives to ATP, no other energy source
currently exists that can accurately respond to the energy needs
of the cell and carry out its crucial processes.
Ask Your Own Question

Quick Questions

See More Biology Questions
 
JAMB 2020 CBT Software Agents - Click Here to Apply
JAMB 2020 CBT Software - Download Now, It's Free!
JAMB 2020 CBT Mobile App - Download Now, It's Free!