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The two types of biogenetic tissues are A.Phloem and Parenchyma B.Meristematic and Non-Meristematic C.Meristematic and...

The two types of biogenetic tissues are
A.Phloem and Parenchyma
B.Meristematic and Non-Meristematic
C.Meristematic and Fruit
D.Flower and Fruit?

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Answers (3)

isaaq
1 month ago
Answer
B.Meristematic and Non-Meristematic

A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. Meristematic cells give rise to various organs of a plant and are responsible for growth.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organisational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.

The English word "tissue" is derived from the French word "tissu", meaning that something that is "woven", from the verb tisser, "to weave".

The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. Developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis.In biology, tissue is a cellular organisational level between cells and a complete organ. A tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues.

The English word "tissue" is derived from the French word "tissu", meaning that something that is "woven", from the verb tisser, "to weave".

The study of human and animal tissues is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. For plants, the discipline is called plant anatomy. The classical tools for studying tissues are the paraffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. Developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of medical diagnosis and prognosis.
In plant anatomy, tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems: the epidermis, the ground tissue, and the vascular tissue.

Epidermis - Cells forming the outer surface of the leaves and of the young plant body.
Vascular tissue - The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These transport fluids and nutrients internally.
Ground tissue - Ground tissue is less differentiated than other tissues. Ground tissue manufactures nutrients by photosynthesis and stores reserve nutrients.
Plant tissues can also be divided differently into two types:

Meristematic tissues
Permanent tissues.
Meristematic tissues
Meristematic tissue consists of actively dividing cells, and leads to increase in length and thickness of the plant. The primary growth of a plant occurs only in certain, specific regions, such as in the tips of stems or roots. It is in these regions that meristematic tissues are present. Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells produced by meristem are initially those of meristem itself, but as the new cells grow and mature, their characteristics slowly change and they become differentiated as components of the region of occurrence of meristematic tissues, being classified as:

Apical meristem - It is present at the growing tips of stems and roots and increases the length of the stem and root. They form growing parts at the apices of roots and stems and are responsible for the increase in length, also called primary growth. This meristem is responsible for the linear growth of an organ.
Lateral meristem - This meristem consists of cells which mainly divide in one plane and cause the organ to increase in diameter and growth. Lateral meristem usually occurs beneath the bark of the tree in the form of Cork Cambium and in vascular bundles of dicots in the form of vascular cambium. The activity of this cambium results in the formation of secondary growth.
Intercalary meristem - This meristem is located in between permanent tissues. It is usually present at the base of the node, internode and on leaf base. They are responsible for growth in length of the plant and increasing the size of the internode. They result in branch formation and growth.
The cells of meristematic tissues are similar in structure and have thin and elastic primary cell wall made up of cellulose. They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape.

Meristematic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, and no intercellular spaces.

Permanent tissues
Permanent tissues may be defined as a group of living or dead cells formed by meristematic tissue and have lost their ability to divide and have permanently placed at fixed positions in the plant body. Meristematic tissues that take up a specific role lose the ability to divide. This process of taking up a permanent shape, size and a function is called cellular differentiation. Cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to form different types of permanent tissues. There are 3 types of permanent tissues:

simple permanent tissues
complex permanent tissues
special or secretory tissues (glandular).
Simple tissues
A group of cells which are similar in origin; similar in structure and similar in function are called simple permanent tissue. They are of four types:

Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Epidermis (botany)
Parenchyma
Parenchyma (para - 'beside'; enchyma - 'tissue') is the bulk of a substance. In plants, it consists of relatively unspecialized living cells with thin cell walls that are usually loosely packed so that intercellular spaces are found between cells of this tissue. These are generally isodiametric, in shape. This tissue provides support to plants and also stores food. In some situations, parenchyma contains chlorophyll and performs photosynthesis, in which case it is called a chlorenchyma. In aquatic plants, large air cavities are present in parenchyma to give support to them to float on water. Such a parenchyma type is called aerenchyma. Some of the parenchyma cells have metabolic waste and is known as idioblast. Spindle shape fiber also contained into this cell to support them and known as prosenchyma, succulent parenchyma also noted.

Collenchyma
Collenchyma is Greek word where "Colla" means gum and "enchyma" means infusion. It is a living tissue of primary body like Parenchyma. Cells are thin-walled but possess thickening of cellulose, water and pectin substances (pectocellulose) at the corners where a number of cells join together. This tissue gives tensile strength to the plant and the cells are compactly arranged and have very little inter-cellular spaces. It occurs chiefly in hypodermis of stems and leaves. It is absent in monocots and in roots. Sometimes it contains chlorophyll which can help them photosynthesize.

Collenchymatous tissue acts as a supporting tissue in stems of young plants. It provides mechanical support, elasticity, and tensile strength to the plant body. It helps in manufacturing sugar and storing it as starch. It is present in the margin of leaves and resists tearing effect of the wind.

Schlerenchyma
Edit
Schlerenchyma is Greek word where "Schlero-" means hard and "enchyma" means infusion. This tissue consists of thick-walled, dead cells and protoplasm is negligible. These cells have hard and extremely thick secondary walls due to uniform distribution and high secretion of lignin. They do not have intermolecular space between them. Lignin deposition is so thick that the cell walls become strong, rigid and impermeable to water which is also known as a stone cell or sclereids. These tissues are mainly of two types: sclerenchyma fiber and sclereids. Schlerenchyma cells have a narrow lumen and are long, narrow and unicellular.

Epidermis
The entire surface of the plant consists of a single layer of cells called epidermis or surface tissue. The entire surface of the plant has this outer layer of the epidermis. Hence it is also called surface tissue. Most of the epidermal cells are relatively flat. The outer and lateral walls of the cell are often thicker than the inner walls. The cells form a continuous sheet without intercellular spaces. It protects all parts of the plant.The outer epidermis is coated with a waxy thick layer called cuticle which prevents loss of water. The epidermis also consists of stomata(singular:stoma) which helps in transpiration.

Complex permanent tissue
Edit
The complex tissue consists of more than one type of cells which work together as a unit. Complex tissues help in the transportation of organic material, water, and minerals up and down the plants. That is why it is also known as conducting and vascular tissue. The common types of complex permanent tissue are:

Xylem or wood
Phloem or bast.
Xylem and phloem together form vascular bundles.

Xylem
Xylem consists of:

Xylem tracheids
Xylem vessel
Xylem fibres or Xylem sclerenchyma
Xylem parenchyma
Gaby
1 month ago
B.Meristematic and Non-Meristematic
A meristem is the tissue in most plants
containing undifferentiated cells
(meristematic cells), found in zones of the
plant where growth can take place.
Meristematic cells give rise to various
organs of a plant and are responsible for
growth.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organisational
level between cells and a complete organ. A
tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and
their extracellular matrix from the same
origin that together carry out a specific
function. Organs are then formed by the
functional grouping together of multiple
tissues.
The English word "tissue" is derived from
the French word "tissu", meaning that
something that is "woven", from the verb
tisser, "to weave".
The study of human and animal tissues is
known as histology or, in connection with
disease, histopathology. For plants, the
discipline is called plant anatomy. The
classical tools for studying tissues are the
paraffin block in which tissue is embedded
and then sectioned, the histological stain,
and the optical microscope. Developments
in electron microscopy,
immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen
tissue sections have enhanced the detail
that can be observed in tissues. With these
tools, the classical appearances of tissues
can be examined in health and disease,
enabling considerable refinement of
medical diagnosis and prognosis.In biology,
tissue is a cellular organisational level
between cells and a complete organ. A
tissue is an ensemble of similar cells and
their extracellular matrix from the same
origin that together carry out a specific
function. Organs are then formed by the
functional grouping together of multiple
tissues.
The English word "tissue" is derived from
the French word "tissu", meaning that
something that is "woven", from the verb
tisser, "to weave".
The study of human and animal tissues is
known as histology or, in connection with
disease, histopathology. For plants, the
discipline is called plant anatomy. The
classical tools for studying tissues are the
paraffin block in which tissue is embedded
and then sectioned, the histological stain,
and the optical microscope. Developments
in electron microscopy,
immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen
tissue sections have enhanced the detail
that can be observed in tissues. With these
tools, the classical appearances of tissues
can be examined in health and disease,
enabling considerable refinement of
medical diagnosis and prognosis.
In plant anatomy, tissues are categorized
broadly into three tissue systems: the
epidermis, the ground tissue, and the
vascular tissue.
Epidermis - Cells forming the outer surface
of the leaves and of the young plant body.
Vascular tissue - The primary components
of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem.
These transport fluids and nutrients
internally.
Ground tissue - Ground tissue is less
differentiated than other tissues. Ground
tissue manufactures nutrients by
photosynthesis and stores reserve
nutrients.
Plant tissues can also be divided differently
into two types:
Meristematic tissues
Permanent tissues.
Meristematic tissues
Meristematic tissue consists of actively
dividing cells, and leads to increase in
length and thickness of the plant. The
primary growth of a plant occurs only in
certain, specific regions, such as in the tips
of stems or roots. It is in these regions that
meristematic tissues are present. Cells in
these tissues are roughly spherical or
polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and
have thin cell walls. New cells produced by
meristem are initially those of meristem
itself, but as the new cells grow and mature,
their characteristics slowly change and they
become differentiated as components of
the region of occurrence of meristematic
tissues, being classified as:
Apical meristem - It is present at the
growing tips of stems and roots and
increases the length of the stem and root.
They form growing parts at the apices of
roots and stems and are responsible for the
increase in length, also called primary
growth. This meristem is responsible for
the linear growth of an organ.
Lateral meristem - This meristem consists of
cells which mainly divide in one plane and
cause the organ to increase in diameter
and growth. Lateral meristem usually occurs
beneath the bark of the tree in the form of
Cork Cambium and in vascular bundles of
dicots in the form of vascular cambium. The
activity of this cambium results in the
formation of secondary growth.
Intercalary meristem - This meristem is
located in between permanent tissues. It is
usually present at the base of the node,
internode and on leaf base. They are
responsible for growth in length of the
plant and increasing the size of the
internode. They result in branch formation
and growth.
The cells of meristematic tissues are similar
in structure and have thin and elastic
primary cell wall made up of cellulose. They
are compactly arranged without inter-
cellular spaces between them. Each cell
contains a dense cytoplasm and a
prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of
meristematic cells contains very few
vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are
oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape.
Meristematic tissue cells have a large
nucleus with small or no vacuoles, and no
intercellular spaces.
Permanent tissues
Permanent tissues may be defined as a
group of living or dead cells formed by
meristematic tissue and have lost their
ability to divide and have permanently
placed at fixed positions in the plant body.
Meristematic tissues that take up a specific
role lose the ability to divide. This process of
taking up a permanent shape, size and a
function is called cellular differentiation.
Cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to
form different types of permanent tissues.
There are 3 types of permanent tissues:
simple permanent tissues
complex permanent tissues
special or secretory tissues (glandular).
Simple tissues
A group of cells which are similar in origin;
similar in structure and similar in function
are called simple permanent tissue. They are
of four types:
Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma
Epidermis (botany)
Parenchyma
Parenchyma (para - 'beside'; enchyma -
'tissue') is the bulk of a substance. In plants,
it consists of relatively unspecialized living
cells with thin cell walls that are usually
loosely packed so that intercellular spaces
are found between cells of this tissue.
These are generally isodiametric, in shape.
This tissue provides support to plants and
also stores food. In some situations,
parenchyma contains chlorophyll and
performs photosynthesis, in which case it is
called a chlorenchyma. In aquatic plants,
large air cavities are present in parenchyma
to give support to them to float on water.
Such a parenchyma type is called
aerenchyma. Some of the parenchyma cells
have metabolic waste and is known as
idioblast. Spindle shape fiber also contained
into this cell to support them and known as
prosenchyma, succulent parenchyma also
noted.
Collenchyma
Collenchyma is Greek word where "Colla"
means gum and "enchyma" means infusion.
It is a living tissue of primary body like
Parenchyma. Cells are thin-walled but
possess thickening of cellulose, water and
pectin substances (pectocellulose) at the
corners where a number of cells join
together. This tissue gives tensile strength
to the plant and the cells are compactly
arranged and have very little inter-cellular
spaces. It occurs chiefly in hypodermis of
stems and leaves. It is absent in monocots
and in roots. Sometimes it contains
chlorophyll which can help them
photosynthesize.
Collenchymatous tissue acts as a supporting
tissue in stems of young plants. It provides
mechanical support, elasticity, and tensile
strength to the plant body. It helps in
manufacturing sugar and storing it as
starch. It is present in the margin of leaves
and resists tearing effect of the wind.
Schlerenchyma
Edit
Schlerenchyma is Greek word where
"Schlero-" means hard and "enchyma"
means infusion. This tissue consists of
thick-walled, dead cells and protoplasm is
negligible. These cells have hard and
extremely thick secondary walls due to
uniform distribution and high secretion of
lignin. They do not have intermolecular
space between them. Lignin deposition is
so thick that the cell walls become strong,
rigid and impermeable to water which is
also known as a stone cell or sclereids.
These tissues are mainly of two types:
sclerenchyma fiber and sclereids.
Schlerenchyma cells have a narrow lumen
and are long, narrow and unicellular.
Epidermis
The entire surface of the plant consists of a
single layer of cells called epidermis or
surface tissue. The entire surface of the
plant has this outer layer of the epidermis.
Hence it is also called surface tissue. Most of
the epidermal cells are relatively flat. The
outer and lateral walls of the cell are often
thicker than the inner walls. The cells form a
continuous sheet without intercellular
spaces. It protects all parts of the plant.The
outer epidermis is coated with a waxy thick
layer called cuticle which prevents loss of
water. The epidermis also consists of
stomata(singular:stoma) which helps in
transpiration.
Complex permanent tissue
Edit
The complex tissue consists of more than
one type of cells which work together as a
unit. Complex tissues help in the
transportation of organic material, water,
and minerals up and down the plants. That
is why it is also known as conducting and
vascular tissue. The common types of
complex permanent tissue are:
Xylem or wood
Phloem or bast.
Xylem and phloem together form vascular
bundles.
Xylem
Xylem consists of:
Xylem tracheids
Xylem vessel
Xylem fibres or Xylem sclerenchyma
Xylem parenchyma
Malik
1 month ago
B
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