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A biological agent with antiviral property is A.enzyme B.disinfectant C.interferon D.antibiotics?

A biological agent with antiviral property is A.enzyme B.disinfectant C.interferon D.antibiotics?

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Answers (5)

isaaq
1 month ago
Antibiotics are drugs or any medication used for that purpose. Disinfectants are chemicals or compounds that are applied on a surface to cure or prevent.
But interferon are antiviral microbial agents released by the cell when it's been invaded by a pathogen.
The answer is C. Interferon
  • isaaq: Interferon Definition
    Interferons belong to the large family of cytokines. Interferon is not a toxin designed to poison a key molecule in the cell. Instead, it is a message that is read by human cells. Interferon is one of a growing class of cytokines, proteins that deliver instructions from cell to cell. Normally, interferon, and the similar interleukins, mediate a continual conversation between cells about growth and defenses. Interferons are named after their ability to "interfere" with viral replication within host cells. Interferon was identified more than 50 years ago by Isaacs and Lindenmann during their studies of the phenomenon of viral interference, the ability of an active or inactivated virus to interfere with the growth of an unrelated virus. Today, more than 10 mammalian IFN species and numerous subspecies have been discovered, each with individual properties, but all having antiviral activity.

    Interferon Types
    Interferons are currently classified into three groups: type I, type II and type III IFNs. The type I IFNs include all IFNαs, IFNβ, IFNε, IFNκ, IFNω and IFNν. Humans have 12 different IFNαs and a single IFNβ. Type I IFN genes are clustered on the human chromosome 9. Each subtype is encoded by its own gene and regulated by its own promoter, and none of them contain introns. The different IFNαs and IFNβ differ substantially in their specific antiviral activities and in the ratios of antiviral to antiproliferative activities. However, the molecular basis of these differences is not yet known. All type I IFNs bind to the same interferon alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) which consists of two major subunits: IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c (the βL subunit).

    There is only one class II IFN, IFNγ. Interferon gamma is produced by T lymphocytes when stimulated with antigens or mitogens. IFNγ binds to a distinct receptor, the interferon gamma receptor (IFNGR) consisting of the two subunits IFNGR1 (previously α chain) and IFNGR2 (previously β chain or accessory factor).

    The more recently described type III IFNs IFNλ2, IFNλ3 and IFNλ1 are also known as IL28A, IL28B and IL29 respectively. The same as type I IFNs, they are also induced by viral infections. They signal through the IFN-λ receptor consisting of the IL-10R2 chain shared with the IL-10 receptor, and a unique IFNλ chain.

    Featured Interferon
    Interferon
    Interferon by Molecules
    Interferon Structure and Function
    As with many other signaling proteins, interferons bring together two copies of a receptor to initiate the signal inside the cells. Interferons are relatively small proteins. Interferon-gamma is a dimeric protein, and it is composed of two identical chains, which intertwine extensively. Two copies of its receptor bind on either side of IFN-gamma. Interferon-alpha, on the other hand, is monomeric, composed of one chain, and two different receptor chains bind to different portions of the protein.

    Alpha-interferons can modify immune function and gamma-interferon plays a role in defense. Apart from these duties in controlling abnormal growth, they also play supporting roles in the day-to-day maintenance of normal cellular growth levels. The messages are subtle and have different consequences when combined with the many messages passing from cell to cell. This complicates the use of interferon in therapy. Familiar hormones like insulin have simple, direct actions, so insulin is effective in replacement therapy. The artificial messages sent by interferon treatment, however, can be read incorrectly, leading to unwanted side effects. But in special cases, interferon can send just the right instructions, directing the immune system to destroy hairy cell leukemia cells or inhibiting the growth of blood vessels nourishing a Kaposi's sarcoma.
    Like 0    Dislike 0   1 month ago
Malik
1 month ago
Check or do research. Antibiotics are drugs or any medication used for that purpose. Disinfectants are chemicals or compounds that are applied on a surface to cure or prevent.
But interferon are antiviral microbial agents released by the cell when it's been invaded by a pathogen.
The answer is A. Interferon
Interferon is closest to the answer
Gaby
1 month ago
Antibiotics are drugs or any medication
used for that purpose. Disinfectants are
chemicals or compounds that are applied
on a surface to cure or prevent.
But interferon are antiviral microbial agents
released by the cell when it's been invaded by a pathogen.
Interferon Definition
Interferons belong to the large
family of cytokines. Interferon is
not a toxin designed to poison
a key molecule in the cell.
Instead, it is a message that is
read by human cells. Interferon
is one of a growing class of
cytokines, proteins that deliver
instructions from cell to cell.
Normally, interferon, and the
similar interleukins, mediate a
continual conversation
between cells about growth
and defenses. Interferons are
named after their ability to
"interfere" with viral replication
within host cells. Interferon
was identified more than 50
years ago by Isaacs and
Lindenmann during their
studies of the phenomenon of
viral interference, the ability of
an active or inactivated virus to
interfere with the growth of an
unrelated virus. Today, more
than 10 mammalian IFN species
and numerous subspecies have
been discovered, each with
individual properties, but all
having antiviral activity.
Interferon Types
Interferons are currently
classified into three groups:
type I, type II and type III IFNs.
The type I IFNs include all IFNαs,
IFNβ, IFNε, IFNκ, IFNω and IFNν.
Humans have 12 different IFNαs
and a single IFNβ. Type I IFN
genes are clustered on the
human chromosome 9. Each
subtype is encoded by its own
gene and regulated by its own
promoter, and none of them
contain introns. The different
IFNαs and IFNβ differ
substantially in their specific
antiviral activities and in the
ratios of antiviral to
antiproliferative activities.
However, the molecular basis of
these differences is not yet
known. All type I IFNs bind to
the same interferon alpha/beta
receptor (IFNAR) which consists
of two major subunits: IFNAR1
and IFNAR2c (the βL subunit).
There is only one class II IFN,
IFNγ. Interferon gamma is
produced by T lymphocytes
when stimulated with antigens
or mitogens. IFNγ binds to a
distinct receptor, the interferon
gamma receptor (IFNGR)
consisting of the two subunits
IFNGR1 (previously α chain) and
IFNGR2 (previously β chain or
accessory factor).
The more recently described
type III IFNs IFNλ2, IFNλ3 and
IFNλ1 are also known as IL28A,
IL28B and IL29 respectively. The
same as type I IFNs, they are
also induced by viral infections.
They signal through the IFN-λ
receptor consisting of the
IL-10R2 chain shared with the
IL-10 receptor, and a unique
IFNλ chain.
Featured Interferon
Interferon
Interferon by Molecules
Interferon Structure and
Function
As with many other signaling
proteins, interferons bring
together two copies of a
receptor to initiate the signal
inside the cells. Interferons are
relatively small proteins.
Interferon-gamma is a dimeric
protein, and it is composed of
two identical chains, which
intertwine extensively. Two
copies of its receptor bind on
either side of IFN-gamma.
Interferon-alpha, on the other
hand, is monomeric, composed
of one chain, and two different
receptor chains bind to
different portions of the
protein.
Alpha-interferons can modify
immune function and gamma-
interferon plays a role in
defense. Apart from these
duties in controlling abnormal
growth, they also play
supporting roles in the day-to-
day maintenance of normal
cellular growth levels. The
messages are subtle and have
different consequences when
combined with the many
messages passing from cell to
cell. This complicates the use of
interferon in therapy. Familiar
hormones like insulin have
simple, direct actions, so insulin
is effective in replacement
therapy. The artificial messages
sent by interferon treatment,
however, can be read
incorrectly, leading to
unwanted side effects. But in
special cases, interferon can
send just the right instructions,
directing the immune system to
destroy hairy cell leukemia cells
or inhibiting the growth of
blood vessels nourishing a
Kaposi's sarcoma.
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