Malaria symptoms are caused by?

Malaria symptoms are caused by?

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Answers (7)

delibee
1 month ago
causes of malaria

Malaria can occur if a mosquito infected with the Plasmodium parasite bites you. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans: Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum.

P. falciparum causes a more severe form of the disease and those who contract this form of malaria have a higher risk of death. An infected mother can also pass the disease to her baby at birth. This is known as congenital malaria.

Malaria is transmitted by blood, so it can also be transmitted through:

an organ transplant
a transfusion
use of shared needles or syringes
What are the symptoms of malaria?
The symptoms of malaria typically develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. In some cases, symptoms may not develop for several months. Some malarial parasites can enter the body but will be dormant for long periods of time.

Common symptoms of malaria include:

shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe
high fever
profuse sweating
headache
nausea
vomiting
abdominal pain
diarrhea
anemia
muscle pain
convulsions
coma
bloody stools
EmX
1 month ago
Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans most commonly through mosquito bites.

Mosquito transmission cycle
Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria.
Transmission of parasite. If this mosquito bites you in the future, it can transmit malaria parasites to you.
In the liver. Once the parasites enter your body, they travel to your liver — where some types can lie dormant for as long as a year.
Into the bloodstream. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect your red blood cells. This is when people typically develop malaria symptoms.
On to the next person. If an uninfected mosquito bites you at this point in the cycle, it will become infected with your malaria parasites and can spread them to the other people it bites.
mhz vee
1 month ago
Overview
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick, with a high fever and shaking chills. Each year, approximately 210 million people are infected with malaria, and about 440,000 people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from the disease are young children in Africa.

While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. Scientists around the world are working to develop a vaccine to prevent malaria.

If you're traveling to locations where malaria is common, take steps to prevent mosquito bites by wearing protective clothing, using insect repellants and sleeping under treated mosquito nets. Depending on the area you are visiting and your individual risk factors for infection, you may also want to take preventive medicine before, during and after your trip. Many malaria parasites are now resistant to the most common drugs used to treat the disease.

Symptoms
A malaria infection is generally characterized by the following signs and symptoms:

Fever
Chills
Headache
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle pain and fatigue
Other signs and symptoms may include:

Sweating
Chest or abdominal pain
Cough
Some people who have malaria experience cycles of malaria "attacks." An attack usually starts with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating and a return to normal temperature. Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for up to a year.

When to see a doctor
Talk to your doctor if you experience a fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. The parasites that cause malaria can lie dormant in your body for up to a year. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention.

Causes
Malaria transmission cycle
Malaria transmission cycle
Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans most commonly through mosquito bites.

Mosquito transmission cycle
Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria.
Transmission of parasite. If this mosquito bites you in the future, it can transmit malaria parasites to you.
In the liver. Once the parasites enter your body, they travel to your liver — where some types can lie dormant for as long as a year.
Into the bloodstream. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect your red blood cells. This is when people typically develop malaria symptoms.
On to the next person. If an uninfected mosquito bites you at this point in the cycle, it will become infected with your malaria parasites and can spread them to the other people it bites.
Other modes of transmission
Because the parasites that cause malaria affect red blood cells, people can also catch malaria from exposure to infected blood, including:

From mother to unborn child
Through blood transfusions
By sharing needles used to inject drugs
Risk factors
The biggest risk factor for developing malaria is to live in or to visit areas where the disease is common. There are many different varieties of malaria parasites. The variety that causes the most serious complications is most commonly found in:

African countries south of the Sahara Desert
The Asian subcontinent
New Guinea, the Dominican Republic and Haiti
Risks of more-severe disease
People at increased risk of serious disease include:

Young children and infants
Older adults
Travelers coming from areas with no malaria
Pregnant women and their unborn children
Poverty, lack of knowledge, and little or no access to health care also contribute to malaria deaths worldwide.

Immunity can wane
Residents of a malaria region may be exposed to the disease so frequently that they acquire a partial immunity, which can lessen the severity of malaria symptoms. However, this partial immunity can disappear if you move to a country where you're no longer frequently exposed to the parasite.

Complications
Malaria can be fatal, particularly malaria caused by the variety of parasite that's common in tropical parts of Africa. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 91 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5.

In most cases, malaria deaths are related to one or more serious complications, including:

Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur. Cerebral malaria may cause seizures and coma.
Breathing problems. Accumulated fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema) can make it difficult to breathe.
Organ failure. Malaria can cause your kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening.
Anemia. Malaria damages red blood cells, which can result in anemia.
Low blood sugar. Severe forms of malaria itself can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), as can quinine — one of the most common medications used to combat malaria. Very low blood sugar can result in coma or death.
Malaria may recur
Some varieties of the malaria parasite, which typically cause milder forms of the disease, can persist for years and cause relapses.

Prevention
If you live in or are traveling to an area where malaria is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should:

Cover your skin. Wear pants and long-sleeved shirts.
Apply insect repellant to skin and clothing. Sprays containing DEET can be used on skin and sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing.
Sleep under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, help prevent mosquito bites while you are sleeping.
Preventive medicine
If you're going to be traveling to a location where malaria is common, talk to your doctor a few months ahead of time about whether you should take drugs before, during and after your trip to help protect you from malaria parasites.

In general, the drugs taken to prevent malaria are the same drugs used to treat the disease. Your doctor needs to know when and where you'll be traveling so that he or she can help you evaluate your risk for infection and, if necessary, prescribe the drug that will work best on the type of malaria parasite most commonly found in that region.

No vaccine yet
Scientists around the world are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine for malaria. As of yet, however, there is still no malaria vaccine approved for human use.
HENRYVILLA
1 month ago
What is malaria?
Malaria is a life-threatening disease. It’s typically transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Infected mosquitoes carry the Plasmodium parasite. When this mosquito bites you, the parasite is released into your bloodstream.

Once the parasites are inside your body, they travel to the liver, where they mature. After several days, the mature parasites enter the bloodstream and begin to infect red blood cells.

Within 48 to 72 hours, the parasites inside the red blood cells multiply, causing the infected cells to burst open.

The parasites continue to infect red blood cells, resulting in symptoms that occur in cycles that last two to three days at a time.

Malaria is typically found in tropical and subtropical climates where the parasites can live. The World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source states that, in 2016, there were an estimated 216 million cases of malaria in 91 countries.

In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report 1,700 casesTrusted Source of malaria annually. Most cases of malaria develop in people who travel to countries where malaria is more common.

Read more: Learn about the relationship between cytopenia and malaria »

What causes malaria?
Malaria can occur if a mosquito infected with the Plasmodium parasite bites you. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans: Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum.

P. falciparum causes a more severe form of the disease and those who contract this form of malaria have a higher risk of death. An infected mother can also pass the disease to her baby at birth. This is known as congenital malaria.

Malaria is transmitted by blood, so it can also be transmitted through:

an organ transplant
a transfusion
use of shared needles or syringes
What are the symptoms of malaria?
The symptoms of malaria typically develop within 10 days to 4 weeks following the infection. In some cases, symptoms may not develop for several months. Some malarial parasites can enter the body but will be dormant for long periods of time.

Common symptoms of malaria include:

shaking chills that can range from moderate to severe
high fever
profuse sweating
headache
nausea
vomiting
abdominal pain
diarrhea
anemia
muscle pain
convulsions
coma
bloody stools
How is malaria diagnosed?
Your doctor will be able to diagnose malaria. During your appointment, your doctor will review your health history, including any recent travel to tropical climates. A physical exam will also be performed.

Your doctor will be able to determine if you have an enlarged spleen or liver. If you have symptoms of malaria, your doctor may order additional blood tests to confirm your diagnosis.

These tests will show:

whether you have malaria
what type of malaria you have
if your infection is caused by a parasite that’s resistant to certain types of drugs
if the disease has caused anemia
if the disease has affected your vital organs
Life-threatening complications of malaria
Malaria can cause a number of life-threatening complications. The following may occur:

swelling of the blood vessels of the brain, or cerebral malaria
an accumulation of fluid in the lungs that causes breathing problems, or pulmonary edema
organ failure of the kidneys, liver, or spleen
anemia due to the destruction of red blood cells
low blood sugar
How is malaria treated?
Malaria can be a life-threatening condition, especially if you’re infected with the parasite P. falciparum. Treatment for the disease is typically provided in a hospital. Your doctor will prescribe medications based on the type of parasite that you have.

In some instances, the medication prescribed may not clear the infection because of parasite resistance to drugs. If this occurs, your doctor may need to use more than one medication or change medications altogether to treat your condition.

Additionally, certain types of malaria parasites, such as P. vivax and P. ovale, have liver stages where the parasite can live in your body for an extended period of time and reactivate at a later date causing a relapse of the infection.

If you’re found to have one of these types of malaria parasites, you’ll be given a second medication to prevent a relapse in the future.

What’s the long-term outlook for people with malaria?
People with malaria who receive treatment typically have a good long-term outlook. If complications arise as a result of malaria, the outlook may not be as good. Cerebral malaria, which causes swelling of the blood vessels of the brain, can result in brain damage.

The long-term outlook for patients with drug-resistant parasites may also be poor. In these patients, malaria may recur. This may cause other complications.

Tips to prevent malaria
There’s no vaccine available to prevent malaria. Talk to your doctor if you’re traveling to an area where malaria is common or if you live in such an area. You may be prescribed medications to prevent the disease.

These medications are the same as those used to treat the disease and should be taken before, during, and after your trip.

Talk to your doctor about long-term prevention if you live in an area where malaria is common. Sleeping under a mosquito net may help prevent being bitten by an infected mosquito. Covering your skin or using bug sprays containing DEET] may also help prevent infection.

If you’re unsure if malaria is prevalent in your area, the CDC has an up-to-date mapTrusted Source of where malaria can be found.
Symptoms
A malaria infection is generally characterized by
the following signs and symptoms:
Fever
Chills
Headache
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle pain and fatigue
Other signs and symptoms may include:
Sweating
Chest or abdominal pain
Cough
Some people who have malaria experience
cycles of malaria "attacks." An attack usually
starts with shivering and chills, followed by a
high fever, followed by sweating and a return to
normal temperature. Malaria signs and
symptoms typically begin within a few weeks
after being bitten by an infected mosquito.
However, some types of malaria parasites can
lie dormant in your body for up to a year.
When to see a doctor
Talk to your doctor if you experience a fever
while living in or after traveling to a high-risk
malaria region. The parasites that cause malaria
can lie dormant in your body for up to a year. If
you have severe symptoms, seek emergency
medical attention.
isaaq
1 month ago
Malaria can occur if a mosquito infected with the Plasmodium parasite bites you. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that can infect humans: Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. falciparum.

P. falciparum causes a more severe form of the disease and those who contract this form of malaria have a higher risk of death. An infected mother can also pass the disease to her baby at birth. This is known as congenital malaria.

The initial symptoms of malaria are flu-like and include:

a high temperature of 38C or above
feeling hot and shivery
headaches
vomiting
muscle pains
diarrhoea
generally feeling unwell
These symptoms are often mild and can sometimes be difficult to identify as malaria.

With some types of malaria, the symptoms occur in 48-hour cycles. During these cycles, you feel cold at first with shivering. You then develop a high temperature, accompanied by severe sweating and fatigue. These symptoms usually last between 6 and 12 hours.

The most serious type of malaria is caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. Without prompt treatment, this type could lead to you quickly developing severe and life-threatening complications, such as breathing problems and organ failure.
Mhizta coded
1 month ago
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite.
The parasite is transmitted to humans
through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
People who have malaria usually feel very
sick, with a high fever and shaking chills.
Each year, approximately 210 million
people are infected with malaria, and
about 440,000 people die from the
disease. Most of the people who die from
the disease are young children in Africa.
While the disease is uncommon in
temperate climates, malaria is still common
in tropical and subtropical countries. World
health officials are trying to reduce the
incidence of malaria by distributing bed
nets to help protect people from mosquito
bites as they sleep. Scientists around the
world are working to develop a vaccine to
prevent malaria.
If you're traveling to locations where
malaria is common, take steps to prevent
mosquito bites by wearing protective
clothing, using insect repellants and
sleeping under treated mosquito nets.
Depending on the area you are visiting and
your individual risk factors for infection,
you may also want to take preventive
medicine before, during and after your trip.
Many malaria parasites are now resistant
to the most common drugs used to treat
the disease.
Symptoms
A malaria infection is generally
characterized by the following signs and
symptoms:
Fever
Chills
Headache
Nausea and vomiting
Muscle pain and fatigue
Other signs and symptoms may include:
Sweating
Chest or abdominal pain
Cough
Some people who have malaria experience
cycles of malaria "attacks." An attack usually
starts with shivering and chills, followed by
a high fever, followed by sweating and a
return to normal temperature. Malaria
signs and symptoms typically begin within
a few weeks after being bitten by an
infected mosquito. However, some types of
malaria parasites can lie dormant in your
body for up to a year.
When to see a doctor
Talk to your doctor if you experience a
fever while living in or after traveling to a
high-risk malaria region. The parasites that
cause malaria can lie dormant in your body
for up to a year. If you have severe
symptoms, seek emergency medical
attention.
Causes
Malaria is caused by a type
of microscopic parasite.
The parasite is transmitted
to humans most commonly
through mosquito bites.
Mosquito
transmission cycle
Uninfected mosquito.
A mosquito becomes infected by
feeding on a person who has malaria.
Transmission of parasite. If this
mosquito bites you in the future, it
can transmit malaria parasites to you.
In the liver. Once the parasites enter
your body, they travel to your liver —
where some types can lie dormant for
as long as a year.
Into the bloodstream. When the
parasites mature, they leave the liver
and infect your red blood cells. This is
when people typically develop malaria
symptoms.
On to the next person. If an
uninfected mosquito bites you at this
point in the cycle, it will become
infected with your malaria parasites
and can spread them to the other
people it bites.
Other modes of transmission
Because the parasites that cause malaria
affect red blood cells, people can also catch
malaria from exposure to infected blood,
including:
From mother to unborn child
Through blood transfusions
By sharing needles used to inject
drugs
Risk factors
The biggest risk factor for developing
malaria is to live in or to visit areas where
the disease is common. There are many
different varieties of malaria parasites. The
variety that causes the most serious
complications is most commonly found in:
African countries south of the Sahara
Desert
The Asian subcontinent
New Guinea, the Dominican Republic
and Haiti
Risks of more-severe disease
People at increased risk of serious disease
include:
Young children and infants
Older adults
Travelers coming from areas with no
malaria
Pregnant women and their unborn
children
Poverty, lack of knowledge, and little or no
access to health care also contribute to
malaria deaths worldwide.
Immunity can wane
Residents of a malaria region may be
exposed to the disease so frequently that
they acquire a partial immunity, which can
lessen the severity of malaria symptoms.
However, this partial immunity can
disappear if you move to a country where
you're no longer frequently exposed to the
parasite.
Complications
Malaria can be fatal, particularly malaria
caused by the variety of parasite that's
common in tropical parts of Africa. The
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
estimates that 91 percent of all malaria
deaths occur in Africa — most commonly
in children under the age of 5.
In most cases, malaria deaths are related to
one or more serious complications,
including:
Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled
blood cells block small blood vessels
to your brain (cerebral malaria),
swelling of your brain or brain
damage may occur. Cerebral malaria
may cause seizures and coma.
Breathing problems. Accumulated
fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema)
can make it difficult to breathe.
Organ failure. Malaria can cause your
kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen
to rupture. Any of these conditions
can be life-threatening.
Anemia. Malaria damages red blood
cells, which can result in anemia.
Low blood sugar. Severe forms of
malaria itself can cause low blood
sugar (hypoglycemia), as can quinine
— one of the most common
medications used to combat malaria.
Very low blood sugar can result in
coma or death.
Malaria may recur
Some varieties of the malaria parasite,
which typically cause milder forms of the
disease, can persist for years and cause
relapses.
Prevention
If you live in or are traveling to an area
where malaria is common, take steps to
avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most
active between dusk and dawn. To protect
yourself from mosquito bites, you should:
Cover your skin. Wear pants and long-
sleeved shirts.
Apply insect repellant to skin and
clothing. Sprays containing DEET can
be used on skin and sprays
containing permethrin are safe to
apply to clothing.
Sleep under a net. Bed nets,
particularly those treated with
insecticide, help prevent mosquito
bites while you are sleeping.
Preventive medicine
If you're going to be traveling to a location
where malaria is common, talk to your
doctor a few months ahead of time about
whether you should take drugs before,
during and after your trip to help protect
you from malaria parasites.
In general, the drugs taken to prevent
malaria are the same drugs used to treat
the disease. Your doctor needs to know
when and where you'll be traveling so that
he or she can help you evaluate your risk
for infection and, if necessary, prescribe
the drug that will work best on the type of
malaria parasite most commonly found in
that region.
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