Define On-line Real-Time Processing and state TWO examples. b. Explain the term “help desk’’ c....

Define On-line Real-Time Processing and state TWO examples.
b. Explain the term “help desk’’
c. State FIVE advantages of using an Interpreter instead of a Compiler translation program.
d. Define the term “firewall”.?

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Answers (7)

mhz vee
1 month ago
On-line real time processing
It is a method whereby the computer processes data as it is entered and alters or updates the required file immediately. It is the processing of individual transactions as they occur through equipment that operates under the control of the central processor. Terminals are utilized to enter data since they provide immediate and direct input to the data processing flow, eliminating the need for manual transmittal. The speed of data collection and input is usually increased.
Examples:
i. On-line tracking of inventories for production and sales
ii. Cash withdrawal from automated teller machine
iii. On-line mobile money transfer
iv. Flight booking system at a travel agency
v. International hotel reservation
vi. E-commerce
vii. E-business
viii. Airplane Traffic Control
ix. Space Exploration

b. Help Desk
A help desk is a resource intended to provide the customer or end-user with information and support related to a company's or institution's products and services. The purpose of a help desk is usually in troubleshooting problems and to provide guidance about products from the company such as computers, electronic equipment, food, apparel, or software. It provides a single (or multiple) point of contact for users to gain assistance in troubleshooting, get answers to questions, and solve known problems. A help desk generally manages its requests through the use of software such as issue tracking systems. These systems often involve the use of a "local bug tracker" (LBT). This system allows the help desk to track and sort user requests with the help of a unique number, and can frequently classify problems by user, computer program, or similar categories.
A help desk is usually operated by individuals that have an extensive background of the appropriate system, so that they can walk users through step-by-step solutions to their problems.
Corporations usually provide help desk support to their customers through various channels such as toll-free numbers, websites, instant messaging, or email.
c. Advantages of using interpreter instead of compiler translation program
i. An interpreter runs the application during run time, whereas a compiler needs to process the application into binary first, which may take time depending on its size.
ii. An interpreter usually allows for easier debugging as it is not getting compiled, and may even be changed while an application is running but compiler does not allow for easy debugging
iii. With an interpreter, no intermediate object code is generated, hence are memory efficient while compiler generates intermediate object code
iv. An interpreter takes less of time than the compiler takes a lot of time to analyse the source code
v. An interpreter continues translating the program until the first error is encountered but when using compiler, errors can only be detected when the output is not correct
vi. An interpreter translates program one statement at a time whereas the compiler translates the whole code.

d. Firewall
A firewall is a software or a hardware in a network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analysing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not based on a set of rules. It is a security system intended to protect an organization‟s network against external threats, such as hackers coming from another network. It is usually a combination of hardware and software that prevents computers in the organisation‟s network from communicating directly with computers external to the network and vice versa.
The purpose of a firewall is to detect and prevent any attempt to gain unauthorised entry through the Internet into a user‟s computer or Intranet system.
A firewall:
i. Will block suspicious messages from the Internet, and prevent them from entering the user‟s computer
ii. May provide an on-screen report to the user whenever it has blocked a message, so that the user is aware of the existence of the messages.
There are four firewall techniques, which are:
 Packet filter
 Application gateway
 Circuit-level gateway
 Proxy server
isaaq
1 month ago
1.Real-time data processing is the execution of data in a short time period, providing near-instantaneous output. The processing is done as the data is inputted, so it needs a continuous stream of input data in order to provide a continuous output. Good examples of real-time data processing systems are bank ATMs, traffic control systems and modern computer systems such as the PC and mobile devices. In contrast, a batch data processing system collects data and then processes all the data in bulk in a later time, which also means output is received at a later time.

Real-time data processing is also known as stream processing.
A real-time data processing system is able to take input of rapidly changing data and then provide output near instantaneously so that change over time is readily seen in such a system. For example, a radar system depends on a continuous flow of input data which is processed by a computer to reveal the location of various aircraft flying within the range of the radar and then display it on a screen so that anyone looking at the screen can know the actual location of an aircraft at that moment.

Real-time data processing is also called stream processing because of the continuous stream of input data required to yield output for that moment. Good examples are e-commerce order processing, online booking and reservations, and credit card real-time fraud detection. The biggest benefit of real-time data processing is instantaneous results from input data that ensures everything is up to date. Batch processing, on the other hand, means that data is no longer timely.
  • isaaq: B. A typical help desk can effectively perform several functions. It provides a single (or multiple) point of contact for users to gain assistance in troubleshooting, get answers to questions, and solve known problems. A help desk generally manages its requests through the use of software such as issue tracking systems.
    C. Compilers can produce much more efficient object code than interpreters thus making the compiled programs to run faster. Interpreters however are easier to use, particularly for beginners, since errors are immediately displayed, corrected by the user, until the program is able to be executed.
    D. A firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. You can implement a firewall in either hardware or software form, or a combination of both. Firewalls prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing private networks connected to the internet, especially intranets.
    Like 0    Dislike 0   1 month ago
HENRYVILLA
1 month ago
Definition - What does Real-Time Data Processing mean?
Real-time data processing is the execution of data in a short time period, providing near-instantaneous output. The processing is done as the data is inputted, so it needs a continuous stream of input data in order to provide a continuous output. Good examples of real-time data processing systems are bank ATMs, traffic control systems and modern computer systems such as the PC and mobile devices. In contrast, a batch data processing system collects data and then processes all the data in bulk in a later time, which also means output is received at a later time.

Real-time data processing is also known as stream processing.

Among the many clichés that one hears in today’s harried business environment is the phrase “time is money.” While a cliché by its nature is worn out, this one is quite descriptive of the current demands on Information Systems. Traditional periodic mode systems that provide information primarily through periodic reports that are hours, days, or weeks out of date can put an organization’s decision makers at a disadvantage if its competitors are using up-to-date information to make the same decisions (e.g., recall the importance placed on timeliness and relevance in Chapter 1). The pressures for timely information flows coupled with significant advances in available information technologies led to a rapid migration towards online real-time systems. Online real-time (OLRT) systems gather business event data at the time of occurrence, update the master data almost instantaneously, and provide the results arising from the business event within a very short time—i.e., in real-time. OLRT systems complete all stages of business event data processing in immediate mode. Immediatemode is the data processing mode in which there is little or no delay between any two data processing steps (as opposed to periodic mode, in which there is a significant delay between two or more data processing steps).

Review Question

Explain the relationship between online real-time (OLRT) and immediate mode processing.


OLRT systems typically require three basic subprocesses to be completed before an event is converted into information that can be used by decision makers. Figure 4.3 illustrates each of these subprocesses.

Business event occurrence and recording of event data: At the time of the business event, related data are entered directly into the system. Source documents are almost never used, as they significantly slow the process and remove some of the advantages of nonredundant data entry. Notice that the data entry process where the sale is entered into the system is the same as in Figure 4.2 (other than the absence of an audit file). This process is consistent with the use of online transactionentry (OLTE) for OLRT systems.
Update master data: Each business event entered into the system is processed individually and any calculations and summarizations completed. This information is then used to update the master data. Note in Figure 4.3 that the processing is now being done on-site where the sales event data are entered.2 Because each business event is processed independently and immediately, the master data at any given time will be within seconds of being up to date. When your books and CDs store is entering your information into the computer, it may be using an OLRT system if it is important to the store to know whether a given book or CD title is in stock at a given time—perhaps to answer a customer’s question.
  • HENRYVILLA: DEFINITION
    firewall

    Posted by: Margaret Rouse
    WhatIs.com

    Contributor(s): Crystal Bedell, Casey Clark and Michael Cobb
    In computing, a firewall is software or firmware that enforces a set of rules about what data packets will be allowed to enter or leave a network. Firewalls are incorporated into a wide variety of networked devices to filter traffic and lower the risk that malicious packets traveling over the public internet can impact the security of a private network. Firewalls may also be purchased as stand-alone software applications.

    The term firewall is a metaphor that compares a type of physical barrier that's put in place to limit the damage a fire can cause, with a virtual barrier that's put in place to limit damage from an external or internal cyberattack. When located at the perimeter of a network, firewalls provide low-level network protection, as well as important logging and auditing functions.

    While the two main types of firewalls are host-based and network-based, there are many different types that can be found in different places and controlling different activities. A host-based firewall is installed on individual servers and monitors incoming and outgoing signals. A network-based firewall can be built into the cloud's infrastructure, or it can be a virtual firewall service.

    Types of firewalls
    Other types of firewalls include packet-filtering firewalls, stateful inspection firewalls, proxy firewalls and next-generation firewalls (NGFW).

    A packet-filtering firewall examines packets in isolation and does not know the packet's context.
    A stateful inspection firewall examines network traffic to determine whether one packet is related to another packet.
    A proxy firewall inspects packets at the application layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model.
    An NGFW uses a multilayered approach to integrate enterprise firewall capabilities with an intrusion prevention system (IPS) and application control.

    Types of firewalls
    When organizations began moving from mainframe computers and dumb clients to the client-server model, the ability to control access to the server became a priority. Before the first firewalls emerged based on work done in the late 1980s, the only real form of network security was enforced through access control lists (ACL) residing on routers. ACLs specified which Internet Protocol (IP) addresses were granted or denied access to the network.

    The exponential growth of the internet and the resulting increase in connectivity of networks, however, meant that filtering network traffic by IP address alone was no longer enough. Static packet-filtering firewalls, which examine packet headers and use rules to make decisions about what traffic to let through, arguably became the most important part of every network security initiative by the end of the last century.
    Like 0    Dislike 0   1 month ago
mizta smart
1 month ago
Real-time data processing is the
execution of data in a short time
period, providing near-instantaneous
output. ... Good examples of real-time
data processing systems are bank
ATMs, traffic control systems and
modern computer systems such as the
PC and mobile devices.
  • mizta smart: Examples:
    i. On-line tracking of inventories for
    production and sales
    ii. Cash withdrawal from automated teller
    machine
    iii. On-line mobile money transfer
    iv. Flight booking system at a travel agency
    v. International hotel reservation
    vi. E-commerce
    vii. E-business
    viii. Airplane Traffic Control
    ix. Space Exploration
    b. Help Desk
    A help desk is a resource intended to
    provide the customer or end-user with
    information and support related to a
    company's or institution's products and
    services. The purpose of a help desk is
    usually in troubleshooting problems and to
    provide guidance about products from the
    company such as computers, electronic
    equipment, food, apparel, or software. It
    provides a single (or multiple) point of
    contact for users to gain assistance in
    troubleshooting, get answers to questions,
    and solve known problems. A help desk
    generally manages its requests through the
    use of software such as issue tracking
    systems. These systems often involve the
    use of a "local bug tracker" (LBT). This
    system allows the help desk to track and
    sort user requests with the help of a unique
    number, and can frequently classify
    problems by user, computer program, or
    similar categories.
    A help desk is usually operated by
    individuals that have an extensive
    background of the appropriate system, so
    that they can walk users through step-by-
    step solutions to their problems.
    Corporations usually provide help desk
    support to their customers through various
    channels such as toll-free numbers,
    websites, instant messaging, or email.
    c. Advantages of using interpreter instead
    of compiler translation program
    i. An interpreter runs the application during
    run time, whereas a compiler needs to
    process the application into binary first,
    which may take time depending on its size.
    ii. An interpreter usually allows for easier
    debugging as it is not getting compiled,
    and may even be changed while an
    application is running but compiler does
    not allow for easy debugging
    iii. With an interpreter, no intermediate
    object code is generated, hence are
    memory efficient while compiler generates
    intermediate object code
    iv. An interpreter takes less of time than the
    compiler takes a lot of time to analyse the
    source code
    v. An interpreter continues translating the
    program until the first error is encountered
    but when using compiler, errors can only
    be detected when the output is not correct
    vi. An interpreter translates program one
    statement at a time whereas the compiler
    translates the whole code.
    d. Firewall
    A firewall is a software or a hardware in a
    network security system that controls the
    incoming and outgoing network traffic by
    analysing the data packets and determining
    whether they should be allowed through or
    not based on a set of rules. It is a security
    system intended to protect an
    organization‟s network against external
    threats, such as hackers coming from
    another network. It is usually a combination
    of hardware and software that prevents
    computers in the organisation‟s network
    from communicating directly with
    computers external to the network and vice
    versa.
    The purpose of a firewall is to detect and
    prevent any attempt to gain unauthorised
    entry through the Internet into a user‟s
    computer or Intranet system.
    A firewall:
    i. Will block suspicious messages from the
    Internet, and prevent them from entering
    the user‟s computer
    ii. May provide an on-screen report to the
    user whenever it has blocked a message, so
    that the user is aware of the existence of
    the messages.
    There are four firewall techniques, which
    are:
     Packet filter
     Application gateway
     Circuit-level gateway
     Proxy server
    Like 0    Dislike 0   1 month ago
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