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Genetic consideration is a major factor in man and woman interpersonal relationship.With reference to marriage,...

Genetic consideration is a major factor in man and woman interpersonal relationship.With reference to marriage, discuss.?

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Answers (3)

isaaq
5 months ago
A lot of research points to the importance of symmetry in visual appeal; those who are rated as having greater facial symmetry are often scored higher on indices of attractiveness. This could be due to symmetry’s association with health. However, popular as this belief is, it is not consensus science. Also, the visual recognition system is making rapid evaluations: We tend to decide if we like someone in a period of a couple hundred milliseconds to a few seconds. Deep and interesting conversation can sometimes offset this, but the original effect of what I call the ‘visual inertia‘ is often very difficult to overcome.

While some individuals claim to prefer certain body types and physical features, there are generally some benchmarks that we tend to look for. Women are judged on such parameters as waist-to-hip ratio, and men are judged on shoulder-to-waist ratio among other factors. Additionally, there is some evidence that the height of the man is associated with perceived happiness in the relationship. To be more precise, what was measured was the difference in height between the two partners — so if the man’s partner is substantially shorter, his absolute height is less important.

Invisible world of MHC

Let me break down the invisible world of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This facet of relationships relies on the theory that people can subconsciously determine each other’s relative differences in their immune systems by scent. What they are detecting, or how they are detecting it are still open questions; the presumption is that there is some scent-based information conveyed by pheromones that are detected. The theory arose by looking at pair-bonded couples to look for correlations, and one that was found was that (for the groups sampled), the individuals in a couple tended to have more substantial differences than similarities in their immune system complex. The hypothesis posited for this is that couples which being together more diverse immune systems would tend to be more genetically fit in the long-run with adverse environmental conditions, and produce heartier offspring. Again, these are correlative findings and haven’t been repeatedly substantiated in a way that was designed to isolate the MHC from other factors.

Related article: Genes identified that extend life
Psychological biases

We also tend to make decisions about a partner, and those decisions become more impervious to falsification and logic as time goes on. What this means is that once we’ve made up our mind about a (potential) partner, whether it’s favorable or unfavorable, it’s very difficult to undo this perception, even with contrary evidence. It turns out this also plays into how we listen to and perceive presidential candidates.

So what’s the takeaway? Physical attractiveness matters, there are likely other uncontrolled — and uncontrollable — factors, such as MHC at play, and our own personal biases and outlook synthesize and shape our opinion to a degree that makes finding that special someone very… personal (read: not logical).

What makes all of this very interesting is that relationships can’t on the whole be quantified. So for as much of our world as we’ve measured and put metrics to, including: travel distances, time, the walking steps of our ‘quantified self,’ blood pressure, temperature, etc., one of the most important factors of being human — our relationships — has largely resisted becoming measured in any meaningful way other than a hindsight measurement of ‘successful/not successful’.

Ben Locwin, PhD, MBA, MS, is a contributor to the Genetic Literacy Project and is an author of a wide variety of scientific articles for books and magazines. He is an expert contact for the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS), a committee member in the American Statistical Association (ASA), and also a consultant for many industries including biological sciences, pharmaceutical, psychological, and academic.

The GLP featured this article to reflect the diversity of news, opinion and analysis. The viewpoint is the author’s own. The GLP’s goal is to stimulate constructive discourse on challenging science issues.
mizta smart
5 months ago
lot of research points to the importance
of symmetry in visual appeal; those who are
rated as having greater facial symmetry are
often scored higher on indices of
attractiveness. This could be due to
symmetry’s association with health.
However, popular as this belief is, it is not
consensus science. Also, the visual
recognition system is making rapid
evaluations: We tend to decide if we like
someone in a period of a couple hundred
milliseconds to a few seconds. Deep and
interesting conversation can sometimes
offset this, but the original effect of what I
call the ‘visual inertia‘ is often very difficult
to overcome.
While some individuals claim to prefer
certain body types and physical features,
there are generally some benchmarks that
we tend to look for. Women are judged on
such parameters as waist-to-hip ratio, and
men are judged on shoulder-to-waist ratio
among other factors. Additionally, there is
some evidence that the height of the man is
associated with perceived happiness in the
relationship. To be more precise, what was
measured was the difference in height
between the two partners — so if the
man’s partner is substantially shorter, his
absolute height is less important.
Many genetic disorders happen when someone
has two bad (faulty) copies of a gene, one from
each parent. In such cases, if one has only one
faulty copy, they won’t have symptoms of the
genetic condition, but are a “carrier” for it. The
baby will be born with the disorder only if both
parents are carriers and both pass the bad gene
to him.
If both parents are carriers for a certain genetic
disorder, the chance that they will both pass
over the faulty genes to their baby will be 25 per
cent.
To test if the couple is a carrier of a genetic
disease, the doctor usually takes a small sample
of their saliva or blood during a checkup before
they plan to get pregnant or before marriage, if
they plan to do so.
These tests can also be done during pregnancy
to determine status of the baby, but getting
tested before pregnancy gives everyone a
greater range of options and more time to make
decisions.
If the test results of one partner are positive for
a faulty gene, they may be required to undergo
further specific tests which involve more
comprehensive and elaborate testing.
Although these tests may seem too
overwhelming for the couple, they ensure that
everything will be fine with their baby and might
prevent future frustration to the family due to a
baby born with debilitating inherited disorder.
Genetic testing for these conditions will depend
on the availability of the testing facilities, as well
as the medical expertise.
In Rwanda and Africa at large, or people of
African ancestry, one of the tested commonest
bothersome inherited disorders is sickle cell
disease which causes a blood disorder that leads
to anaemia, a weakened immune system, and
other life threatening health complications of the
affected child.
Another genetic disorder called beta thalassemia
is also more common to people of African and
Mediterranean descent and this can also be
screened for during couple genetic testing. This
condition may lead to bone abnormalities, liver
problems, and anaemia in a baby. In some cases,
a baby with this disorder may not even survive.
Other disorders screened for which aren’t so
common in Africa include cystic fibrosis
(common in Caucasians, a life-threatening
condition that causes lung damage and digestive
problems), Tay-Sachs Disease (disorder of the
central nervous system which is usually fatal in
early childhood) and Fragile X Syndrome
(developmental problems, including learning
disabilities and mental retardation, is not linked
to a specific ethnic background).
Though there are many other recessive genetic
diseases, they are not routinely checked for
because they’re either very, very rare or because
the right tests have not been developed yet.
If during this genetic couple testing both partners
are found to be positive for carrier screening
before they get a baby, they have several
options. They might choose to become pregnant
and have prenatal diagnostic tests to see if the
foetus has the disorder, and can decide the next
course of action after thorough education and
counselling by their gynaecologist and geneticist.
They can also choose to use in vitro fertilisation
(IVF) with donor eggs or man-fluid to become
pregnant. With this option, the embryo can be
tested before it is transferred to the mother’s
uterus.
After thorough discussion with their doctor and
many considerations, the couple might also
choose either not to become pregnant together
or get married to each other at all.
It is important to know that if this carrier
screening is done after one has already become
pregnant, the options are more limited. In either
case, a genetic counsellor, gynaecologist, or
other health care professional, can explain the
risks of having a child with that disorder.
At Rwanda Military Hospital, this genetic couple
testing, education and counselling is done by a
skilled geneticist. Couples are, however, advised
to come a few months before they plan to have
a child as some of the results of this screening
might take some time to process.
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