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"What can we do to improve sanitation and clean water for those who lack access...

"What can we do to improve sanitation and clean water for those who lack access to a plumbing system?"Essays should be no more than 800 words.NO PLAGIARISM please.Thanks.?

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1 month ago
First, we must understand, respond to, and
promote consumer demand for water and
sanitation services. Without identifying why
and how users would like improved services
and subsidizing improvements without user
input, many projects risk being abandoned
or misused. The new goal is to spur
consumer demand and provide market-
based approaches, such as microcredits or
loans instead of grants, in those areas
where individuals and communities desire
improvements. Investment will then be more
sustainable than a generic installation by an
outside organization.
Second, there must be a move away from
implementation without evaluation. Water
and sanitation projects must include
monitoring and evaluation components
from inception through implementation and
follow-up, and the metrics should reflect the
need, design, implementation, use, impact,
efficiency, and sustainability of the project/
program. Agencies often measure success
by the number of wells or latrines installed,
rather than the quantity used or the number
still operational five years later. The metrics
of successful water and sanitation projects
need to reflect actual use as well as promote
accountability for keeping the services
operational. Furthermore, the results of the
monitoring and evaluation and lessons
learned need to get back to the decision
makers so that the findings can inform
Third, there needs to be an emphasis on
sustainability. There is a need for additional
longitudinal research to identify approaches
that are sustainable technically, financially,
and environmentally. Technical sustainability
has been an ongoing problem in water and
sanitation projects in developing countries.
Too often, a pump or other piece of
equipment breaks and cannot be repaired.
This problem can occur all along the scale of
services from a pump at a borehole to a
pump in a modern water or wastewater
treatment plant.
Financial sustainability depends on local
capacity to recover the true costs of water
and sanitation system operation and
maintenance without reliance on long-term
financial aid from external donors. This
includes consideration of community
management models, transparency, and
good governance practices. However, there
can be tension between the need to recover
the costs of water supply and sanitation
development, operation, and maintenance
and the principle that safe water and
sanitation are basic human rights that
should be provided to all. It is essential that
these services be adequately valued since
they are also linked to the protection of
scarce natural resources. Environmental
sustainability includes consideration of the
available water resources that can be
developed for drinking water as well as for
industry and agriculture needs and also
weighing the long-term feasibility of
waterborne sewerage and wastewater
treatment. In developing countries, most
cities and towns that have a sewerage
system do not have sewage treatment, and
the consequences of continued discharge of
raw sewage into the environment are
serious, irreversible damage to the aquatic
environment as well as health risks from
exposure to pathogens entering the
Finally, there needs to be investment in
building human capacity in-country in order
to be able to construct, operate, manage
and maintain water and sanitation services.
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