Failed JAMB? Don't Worry, you can gain admission into 200L in any University of your Choice, even with low JAMB Score
90% of Post UTME Exam Questions come from Past Ones

the factor affecting production and distribution in west African?

the factor affecting production and distribution in west African?

To get notifications when anyone posts a new answer to this question,
Follow New Answers

Post an Answer

Please don't post or ask to join a "Group" or "Whatsapp Group" as a comment. It will be deleted. To join or start a group, please click here

Sell Past Questions on Myschool
Get Project Topics & Materials

Answers (2)

Factors Affecting Crop
Production

FACTORS AFFECTING CROP PRODUCTION
Genetic factors
The increase in crop yields and other desirable
characters are related to Genetic make-up of
plants.
High yielding ability
Early maturity
Resistance to lodging
Drought flood and salinity tolerance
Tolerance to insect pests and diseases
Chemical composition of grains (oil content,
protein content)
Quality of grains (fineness, coarseness)
Quality of straw (sweetness, juiciness)
The above characters are less influenced by
environmental factors since they are governed
by genetic make-up of crop.
External factors
Climatic
Edaphic
Biotic
Phsiographic
Socio-economic
CLIMATIC FACTORS
Nearly 50 % of yield is attributed to the influence
of climatic factors. The following are the
atmospheric weather variables or elements of
weather which influences crop production.
Precipitation
Temperature
Atmospheric humidity
Solar radiation
Wind velocity
Atmospheric gases
Precipitation
1. Precipitation includes all water which falls
from atmosphere such as rainfall, snow, hail,
fog and dew.
2. Rainfall one of the most important factor
influences the vegetation of a place.
3. Total precipitation in amount and distribution
greatly affects the choice of a cultivated species
in a place.
4. In heavy and evenly distributed rainfall areas,
crops like rice in plains and tea, coffee and
rubber in Western Ghats are grown.
5. Low and uneven distribution of rainfall is
common in dryland farming where drought
resistance crops like pearl millet, sorghum and
minor millets are grown.
6. In desert areas grasses and shrubs are
common where hot desert climate exists.
7. Though the rainfall has major influence on
yield of crops, yields are not always directly
proportional to the amount of Precipitation as
excess above optimum reduces the yields.
8. Distribution of rainfall is more important than
total rainfall to have longer growing period
especially in drylands.
Temperature
Temperature is a measure of intensity of heat
energy. The range of temperature for maximum
growth of most of the agricultural plants is
between 15 and 40ºC. The temperature of a
place is largely determined by its distance from
the equator (latitude) and altitude.
1. It influences distribution of crop plants and
vegetation.
2. Germination, growth and development of
crops are highly influenced by temperature.
3. Affects leaf production, expansion and
flowering.
4. Physical and chemical processes within the
plants are governed by air temperature.
5. Diffusion rates of gases and liquids changes
with temperature.
6. Solubility of different substances in plant is
dependent on temperature.
7. The minimum, maximum (above which crop
growth ceases) and optimum temperature of
individual’s plant is called as cardinal
temperature.

Factors Affecting Crop
Production
by Editor | Sep 11, 2017 | Uncategorized | 1
comment
FACTORS AFFECTING CROP PRODUCTION
Genetic factors
The increase in crop yields and other desirable
characters are related to Genetic make-up of
plants.
High yielding ability
Early maturity
Resistance to lodging
Drought flood and salinity tolerance
Tolerance to insect pests and diseases
Chemical composition of grains (oil content,
protein content)
Quality of grains (fineness, coarseness)
Quality of straw (sweetness, juiciness)
The above characters are less influenced by
environmental factors since they are governed
by genetic make-up of crop.
External factors
Climatic
Edaphic
Biotic
Phsiographic
Socio-economic
CLIMATIC FACTORS
Nearly 50 % of yield is attributed to the influence
of climatic factors. The following are the
atmospheric weather variables or elements of
weather which influences crop production.
Precipitation
Temperature
Atmospheric humidity
Solar radiation
Wind velocity
Atmospheric gases
Precipitation
1. Precipitation includes all water which falls
from atmosphere such as rainfall, snow, hail,
fog and dew.
2. Rainfall one of the most important factor
influences the vegetation of a place.
3. Total precipitation in amount and distribution
greatly affects the choice of a cultivated species
in a place.
4. In heavy and evenly distributed rainfall areas,
crops like rice in plains and tea, coffee and
rubber in Western Ghats are grown.
5. Low and uneven distribution of rainfall is
common in dryland farming where drought
resistance crops like pearl millet, sorghum and
minor millets are grown.
6. In desert areas grasses and shrubs are
common where hot desert climate exists.
7. Though the rainfall has major influence on
yield of crops, yields are not always directly
proportional to the amount of Precipitation as
excess above optimum reduces the yields.
8. Distribution of rainfall is more important than
total rainfall to have longer growing period
especially in drylands.
Temperature
Temperature is a measure of intensity of heat
energy. The range of temperature for maximum
growth of most of the agricultural plants is
between 15 and 40ºC. The temperature of a
place is largely determined by its distance from
the equator (latitude) and altitude.
1. It influences distribution of crop plants and
vegetation.
2. Germination, growth and development of
crops are highly influenced by temperature.
3. Affects leaf production, expansion and
flowering.
4. Physical and chemical processes within the
plants are governed by air temperature.
5. Diffusion rates of gases and liquids changes
with temperature.
6. Solubility of different substances in plant is
dependent on temperature.
7. The minimum, maximum (above which crop
growth ceases) and optimum temperature of
individual’s plant is called as cardinal
temperature.

Soil air
Aeration of soil is absolutely essential for the
absorption of water by roots
Germination is inhibited in the absence of
oxygen
O is required for respiration of roots and
microorganisms.
Soil air is essential for nutrient availability of
the soil by breaking down insoluble mineral
to soluble salts
For proper decomposition of organic matter
Potato, tobacco, cotton linseed, tea and
legumes need higher O in soil air
Rice requires low level of O and can tolerate
water logged (absence of O2) condition.
Soil temperature
It affects the physical and chemical
processes going on in the soil.
It influences the rate of absorption of water
and solutes (nutrients)
It affects the germination of seeds and
growth rate of underground portions of the
crops like tapioca, sweet potato.
Soil temperature controls the microbial
activity and processes involved in the
nutrient availability
Cold soils are not conducive for rapid growth
of most of agricultural crops
Soil mineral matter
The mineral content of soil is derived from
the weathering of rocks and minerals as
particles of different sizes.
These are the sources of plant nutrients eg;
Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, K etc
Soil Organic matter
It supplies all the major, minor and micro
nutrients to crops
It improves the texture of the soil
It increases the water holding capacity of the
soil.
It is a source of food for most
microorganisms
Organic acids released during decomposition
of organic matter enables mineralisation
process thus releasing unavailable plant
nutrients
Soil organisms
The raw organic matter in the soil is
decomposed by different microorganisms
which in turn releases the plant nutrients
Atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by microbes in
the soil and is available to crop plants
through symbiotic (Rhizobium ) or non-
symbiotic ( Azospirillum ) association
Soil reaction (pH)
Soil reaction is the pH (hydrogen ion
concentration) of the soil.
Soil pH affects crop growth and neutral soils
with pH 7.0 are best for growth of most of
the crops
Soils may be acidic (7.0)
Soils with low pH is injurious to plants due
high toxicity of Fe and Al.
Low pH also interferes with availability of
other plant nutrients.
BIOTIC FACTORS
Beneficial and harmful effects caused by other
biological organism (plants and animals) on the
crop plants
Plants
Competitive and complementary nature
among field crops when grown together
Competition between plants occurs when
there is demand for nutrients, moisture and
sunlight particularly when they are in short
supply or when plants are closely spaced
When different crops of cereals and legumes
are grown together, mutual benefit results in
higher yield (synergistic effect)
Competition between weed and crop plants
as parasites eg: Striga parasite weed on
sugarcane crop
Animals
Soil fauna like protozoa, nematode, snails,
and insects help in organic matter
decomposition, while using organic matter
for their living
Insects and nematodes cause damage to
crop yield and considered as harmful
organisms.
Honey bees and wasps help in cross
pollination and increases yield and
considered as beneficial organisms
Burrowing earthworm facilitates aeration and
drainage of the soil as ingestion of organic
and mineral matter by earthworm results in
constant mixing of these materials in the
soils.
Large animals cause damage to crop plants
by grazing (cattle, goats etc)
Physiographic factors:
Topography is the nature of surface earth
(leveled or sloppy) is known as topography.
Topographic factors affect the crop growth
indirectly.
Altitude – increase in altitude cause a
decrease in temperature and increase in
precipitation and wind velocity (hills and
plains)
Steepness of slope: it results in run off of
rain water and loss of nutrient rich top soil
Exposure to light and wind: a mountain slope
exposed to low intensity of light and strong
dry winds may results in poor crop yields
(coastal areas and interior pockets)
READ Commercial Livestock Feed to be
Obtained from Cassava Peels
Socio-economic factors
Society inclination to farming and members
available for cultivation
Appropriate choice of crops by human beings
to satisfy the food and fodder requirement of
farm household.
Breeding varieties by human invention for
increased yield or pest & disease resistance
The economic condition of the farmers greatly
decides the input/ resource mobilizing ability
(marginal, small, medium and large farmers)
https://www.researchgate.net/
file.PostFileLoader.html?id…assetKey
Other factors include
Loss of cropland
Cropland has been lost because of various
reasons, the most noteworthy of them being as
follows:
Rapid urban development and accompanying
development of infrastructure has been
primarily at the cost of agricultural land. As
settlements, towns and cities grow; adjacent
cropland is reduced to accommodate roads,
industries and buildings. With expected
increase in world urban population from
about 3 billion people in 2000 to 5 billion in
2030 (according to UN projections), built-up
area is likely to increase to about 0.7 per cent
by 2030. This is likely to be at the expense of
cropland.
Cropland area has been lost to degradation
because of deforestation and inappropriate
agricultural practices. It is estimated by
several researchers that globally,
20,000-50,000 sq. km. of land are lost
annually, mainly because of soil erosion, the
losses being some 3-6 times higher in Africa,
Latin America and Asia than in North America
and Europe. The major areas of degradation
are in Africa, south of the equator, South-
East Asia, Southern China, North-Central
Australia, and the pampas of South America.
More than 900,000 sq km of land in sub-
Saharan Africa is threatened with irreversible
degradation if nutrient depletion is allowed to
continue. In most parts of Asia, forest is
shrinking, agriculture is gradually expanding
to marginal land, and nutrient leaching and
soil erosion are accelerating land degradation.
Changes in the proportion of non-food crops
to food crops could have a significant impact
on available cropland for food production.
Biofuels (which include biodiesel from palm
oil and ethanol from sugarcane, corn and
soya-bean) have become prominent given the
circumstances of high oil prices and the
initial perception that they are
environmentally friendly in reducing carbon
dioxide emissions. North America and Europe
have set high targets to convert to biofuels.
Many countries, such as Indonesia and
Malaysia, see’ in biofuels an opportunity to
improve rural livelihoods and boost the
economy through exports. Though biofuels
are a potential low-carbon energy source, the
conversion of rainforests, peatlands, and
savannas to produce biofuels in the US,
Brazil and South East Asia may actually
release more carbon dioxide than the
reductions in greenhouse gases brought
about by using biofuels as an energy source.
The main potential of biofuels lies in using
biomass grown in wastelands or abandoned
agricultural land. It has also been pointed out
that growing crops for biofuels competes
with food production; according to some
calculations, the corn equivalent of a full tank
of ethanol in a 4-wheel drive suburban utility
vehicle (SUV) could practically feed one
person for a year. As a consequence of
diverting cropland to biofuel production, food
prices are expected to rise drastically.
Production of other non-food crops, such as
cotton, is also projected to increase. Again,
this would be at the expense of food
production.
Reduced yields
Due to environmental degradation and loss of
ecosystem components, there would be
reduced yield of food crops. Unsustainable
practices in irrigation and production may lead
to increased salinisation of soil, depletion of soil
nutrients, and erosion. This, in turn, will cause
lower yields. The productivity of some lands
has declined by 50 per cent due to soil erosion
and desertification.
Africa is considered to be the continent most
severely affected by land degradation. Global
climate change can also affect food production:
by changing overall growing conditions (rainfall
distribution, temperature regime); by inducing
more extreme weather such as floods, storms,
and drought; and by increasing extent, type and
frequency of infestations, including that of
invasive alien species. All this would be bound
to adversely affect yield.
An important factor in agricultural, yield is
water: agriculture accounts for nearly 70 per
cent of water consumption. Water scarcity is
expected to affect over 1.8 billion people by
2025 according to the World Health
Organisation. This could cause not only health
problems but also impact farm productivity.
Watersheds have been damaged.
The global consumption of both ‘blue’ water
(withdrawn for irrigation from lakes, rivers and
aquifers) and ‘green’ water (precipitation) by
rain-fed and irrigated agriculture and other
terrestrial ecosystems is steadily increasing.
Water may be considered as one of the most
limiting factors in increasing food production.
Over- extraction of water resources from
aquifers and rivers has led to much loss of this
resource. River discharge has decreased in
many areas mainly as a result of human action
and use. This water scarcity is likely to reduce
yields of food grains, as 40 per cent of world’s
crop yields is based on irrigation.
Invasive Alien Species
Invasive alien species—pests and diseases—are
another threat to food production. Pests and
pathogens have had particularly severe effects
on crop yields in the world’s poorest and most
food insecure region of sub-Saharan Africa.
Increased climate extremes may encourage the
spread of plant diseases, pest outbreaks and
weeds. The spread of invasive alien species also
occurs in the provisions of humanitarian food
aid in times of famine and disaster
emergencies, as lower sanitary and
phytosanitary standards apply to such food aid.

Aquaculture and Fisheries
Fisheries— freshwater and marine—supply about
10 per cent of world human calorie intake. It is
estimated that fish contributes up to 180 kcal
per day, but these heights are reached only in a
few countries where there is a strong preference
for fish or there is a marked lack of alternative
protein foods grown locally. Recommending an
increased intake of fish, however, needs to be
balanced against concerns of sustainability.
The world’s fisheries have steadily declined
since the 1980s, reported the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2008. Over
half the world’s catches are made in less than 7
per cent of the oceans, and these regions are
already facing an increasing damage from
bottom trawling, pollution, dead zones (areas of
the coasts starved of oxygen), and invasive
species infestations. Overfishing and bottom
trawling are reducing fish stocks and degrading
fish habitats, threatening the entire productivity
of ocean biodiversity hotspots.
It is reported that about 80 per cent of the
world’s primary fisheries stocks are exploited
close to or even beyond their optimum harvest
capacity. Large areas of productive seabeds on
some fishing grounds have been damaged.
Overfishing and pollution have led to infestation
of the world’s fishing grounds by invasive
species, mainly through ballast water (as seen
all along major shipping routes).
Eutrophication from excessive inputs of
phosphorus and nitrogen through sewage and
agricultural run-offs is a major threat to
freshwater and coastal marine fisheries.
Eutrophication and excessive fishing leads to
loss or depletion of marine food resources, as
has happened in the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific
Northwest, coastal China and many parts of the
Atlantic.
The limit to the availability of wild marine fish
for aquaculture feed is also bound to limit the
further growth of aquaculture. In some regions
such as in parts of Africa and South East Asia,
increase in fisheries has been an important
contributor in the increase of food supply in
recent times. A decline in fisheries will,
therefore, have a major impact on the
livelihoods and nutrition of millions of people.
Livestock
There has been an increasing pressure on the
livestock sector to meet the growing demand
for high-value animal protein. Annual meat
production is projected to rise to more than 375
million tonnes by 2030 from about 200 tonnes in
1997-98. Various factors are at work in this
increase in demand for livestock products.
Mainly, with increased income levels, it is seen
that consumption of animal protein (meat, milk,
eggs) increases at the cost of staple foods
(cereals, for example).
As urbanization spreads, it stimulates
improvements in infrastructure, including cold
chains, which permit trade in perishable foods.
City dwellers tend to have a more varied diet
(rich in animal proteins and fats) than rural
communities.
There has been a noteworthy increase in
consumption of animal products in countries,
such as Brazil and China, though the levels are
still below the consumption levels in North
American and most other industrialised
countries. Excessive consumption of livestock
products, however, can have detrimental effects
on health due to excessive intake of fat. Intake
of dietary fats has increased practically
everywhere (most in North America) except in
Africa. Rising incomes in the developing world
have also led to an increase in the availability
and consumption of energy-dense high-fat
diets.
The growing demand for livestock products is
likely to have adverse impact on the
environment. It is estimated that the area
required for production of animal feed is
approximately one-third of all arable land. More
land may get diverted from crops for grazing
and feed production for the meat industry.
Deforestation has increased especially in Latin
America because of the expansion of land for
livestock grazing. Overgrazing brings its own
problems in the form of land degradation.
According to FAO, over 70 per cent of all
grazing land in dry areas is considered
degraded mostly because of overgrazing,
compaction and erosion attributable to
livestock. Increased demand for meat also
results in an accelerated demand for water, and
feed crops such as maize and soyabean. In
addition, large-scale industrial production of
livestock products tends to be located close to
urban centres and could lead to environmental
and public health risks.

Source: http://
www.yourarticlelibrary.com/geography/top-5-
factors-affecting-crop-production/42222/
Ask Your Own Question

Quick Questions

See More Commerce Questions
 
Post UTME Past Questions 2019/2020
Sell Past Questions on Myschool
Get Project Topics & Materials