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What are the topics to read in commerce?

What are the topics to read in commerce?

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Answers (3)

isaaq
8 months ago
follow the link below for commerce jamb syllabus, that's where jamb would set their questions from.
https://myschool.ng/classroom/jamb-syllabus/commerce
Chinny
8 months ago
Below are the commerce topics from jamb syllabus.
1. Commerce
Topics:
(i) Meaning and scope

(ii) Characteristics
(iii) Functions
2. Occupation
Topics:
(i) Meaning and importance

(ii) Types (industrial, commercial and services)
(iii) Factors that determine choice of occupation
3. Production
Topics:
(i) Factors, characteristics and rewards (land, labour, capital and entrepreneur)

(ii) Division of Labour and specialization
(iii) Types (primary, secondary and tertiary)
4. Trade
Topics:
a. Home Trade

(i) Retail trade:
- Types of retailers
- Functions of retailers
- Factors to be considered in setting up retail trade
- Trends in retailing (branding, self -service, vending machines, the use of luncheon, fuel vouchers, etc)
- Advantages and disadvantages of retailers
(ii) Wholesale trade:

- Types of wholesalers (merchant, agent, general, etc)
- Functions of wholesalers
- Advantages and disadvantages of wholesalers
b. Foreign trade

(i) Basic issues in foreign trade (balance of trade, balance of payments and counter trade)
(ii) Procedures and documents used in export, import and entreport trade
(iii) Barriers to international trade
(iv) Role of Customs and Excise Authority, Ports Authority, etc in foreign trade
5. Purchase and Sale of Goods
Topics:
(i) Procedure and documentation (enquiry, quotation, order, invoice, proforma invoice, statement of accounts, indent, consular invoice, bill of lading, certificate of origin, consignment note, etc)

(ii) Terms of trade (trade discount, quantity discount, cash discount, warranties, C.O.D., C.I.F., F.O.B., and E.O.E. etc)
(iii) Terms of payments
a. Cash - Legal tender
b. Credit
- Types and functions
- Merits and demerits
6. Aids-to-trade


Topic:
a. Advertising:

(i) Types and media
(ii) Advantages and disadvantages
b. Banking:

(i) Types of bank
(ii) Services
(iii) Challenges
c. Communication:

(i) Process and procedure
(ii) Types
(iii) Trends
(iv) Merits and demerits
(v) Barriers
d. Insurance:

(i) Types
(ii) Principles
(iii) Terms
(iv) Importance
e. Tourism:

(i) Importance
(ii) Agencies that promote tourism in Nigeria
(iii) Challenges
f. Transportation:

(i) Mode
(ii) Importance
(iii) Advantages and disadvantages
g. Warehousing:

(i) Importance
(ii) Types and functions
(iii) Factors to be considered in siting a warehouse
7. Business Units


Topics:
(i) Forms and features (Sole Proprietorship, Partnership, Limited Liability Companies, Public Corporations, Cooperative Societies, etc.)

(ii) Registration of businesses
(iii) Business Mergers
(iv) Determination of choice of business units
(v) Dissolution and liquidation
(vi) Merits and demerits
8. Financing Business
Topics:
(i) Sources of finance (personal savings, sale of shares and bonds, loans, debentures, mortgage, bank overdraft, ploughing back of profit, credit purchase, leasing, etc.)

(ii) Types of capital (share capital, capital owned, authorized (capital, issued capital, called-up capital, paid-up capital, liquid capital, working capital and owners' equity)
(iii) Calculation of forms of capital, profits (gross and net) and turnover
(iv) Problems of sourcing finance
(v) The role of Bureaux de change in an economy
9. Trade Associations
Topics:
(i) Objectives and functions of trade and manufacturer's associations (Cocoa Farmers' Association, Garri Sellers' Association, Poultry Farmers' Association, etc.)

(ii) Objectives and functions of Chambers of Commerce.
10. Money


Topics:
(i) Evolution

(ii) Forms and qualities
(iii) Functions
12. Elements of Business Management


Topics:
(i) Functions (planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating, motivating, communicating, controlling etc)

(ii) Principles (span of control, unity of command, delegation of authority, etc)
(iii) Organizational structure (line, line and staff, functional, matrix and committee)
(iv) Functional areas of business (production, marketing, finance and personnel)
(v) Business resources (man, money, materials, machines and opportunities/goodwill)
11. Stock Exchange


Topics:
(i) Importance and functions

(ii) Types of securities (stocks, shares, bonds, debentures, etc)
(iii) Procedure of transactions and speculations
(iv) Second-Tier Securities Market, (listing requirements, types of companies for the market, advantages and operating regulations of the market.)
13. Elements of Marketing


Topics:
(i) Importance and Functions

(ii) The marketing concept (consumer orientation, customer satisfaction, integrated marketing, etc)
(iii) Marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion)
(iv) Market Segmentation
(v) Public relations and Customer Service
14. Legal Aspects of Business
Topics:
(i) Meaning and validity of a simple contract

(ii) Agency, Sale of Goods Act and Hire Purchase Act
(iii) Contract of employment
(iv) Government regulations of business (registration of business, patents, trademarks, copyrights, etc)
(v) Consumer protection (Government legislation, Standards Organization Trade Descriptions Act, Consumer Protection Council, NAFDAC, NDLEA, Customs and Excise, etc.)
(vi) Regulatory agencies.
15. Information and Communication Technology (ICT)


Topics:
a. Computer:

(i) Appreciation and application
(ii) Types and functions
(iii) Merits and demerits
(iv) Challenges
b. Terms (Internet, Intranet, browsing, password, e-mail, google, yahoo, search, Local Area Network, etc.)
c. Activities:
(i) e-commerce
(ii) e-banking
(iii) e-business
16. Business Environment and Social Responsibility


Topics:
(i) Legal, political, economic, social, cultural, technological environments, etc

(ii) Safe products, philanthropic and societal consideration
(iii) Types and implication of pollution (water, air, land, etc.
mhizzlee
2 months ago
. Introduction To Commerce

Meaning, scope and functions of Commerce, History of Commerce.

2. Occupations

Types – Industry, Commerce, Direct and Indirect Services.

3. Production

Definition, factors, primary, secondary and tertiary production. Inter-relationship between production and exchange.

4. BUSINESS UNITS

(i) Meaning and objectives of business;

(ii) Forms of Business Units – Sole proprietorship, Partnership, Public and Private Limited Liability Companies, Public Enterprises and Cooperative Societies;

(iii) Formation, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages;

(iv) Dissolution/liquidation

5. BUSINESS CAPITAL AND PROFITS

(i) Meaning and types – authorised/registered/nominal/issued capital, called-up, paid up, capital owned; capital borrowed, liquid/circulating capital;

(ii) Calculation of working capital, the importance of working capital;

(iii) Profit – meaning, types and calculation of profits;

(iv) Turnover – meaning and calculation.

6. TRADE ASSOCIATIONS

(i) Aims and functions of trade associations;

(ii) Chamber of Commerce, Employers’ Association, Consumer Association and Manufacturers’ Association – Aims and functions.

7. TRADE

Purpose and branches of trade – Home Trade and Foreign Trade.

(a) HOME TRADE

(i) Retail Trade – Functions of the Retailer and factors to consider in starting retail business.

Small scale and large scale retailing. Types of Retail outlets, the main characteristics of each.

Trends in Retailing – branding, after-sales service, self-service, vending machines, luncheon and fuel vouchers.

(ii) Wholesale Trade – Functions of the wholesaler. Types of wholesalers – Merchant and Agent wholesalers.

(iii) Warehousing – importance, functions and types of warehouses.

(iv) Forces making for the elimination and survival of the middleman.

(v) Channels of Distribution – Producer – Wholesaler – Retailer – Consumer.

Factors for the choice of the channels.

(b) FOREIGN TRADE

(i) Basic concepts in International Trade – Terms of trade, balance of trade, balance of payment, counter trade.

(ii) Export, Import and Entrepot – procedures and documents used. Visible and Invisible Trade.

(iii) Barriers to International Trade

(iv) Functions of Ports Authority. Customs and Excise Authority, Customs, Excise and Preventive Services and shipping, clearing and forwarding Agents, Export Promotion Council.

8. PURCHASE AND SALE OF GOODS

(i) Procedure and documents;

(ii) Terms of Trade – Trade Discount, Cash discount, Quantity discount, C.O.D., C.I.F., F. O. B., E. and O.E.

(iii) Terms of payment – Cash, hire purchase and deferred payment;

(iv) Means of payment – Legal tender, cheques, standing order, bank drafts, stamps, postal orders, money orders, bills of exchange and promissory notes.

9. FINANCE AND FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

(a) MONEY – Meaning, forms, qualities and functions.

(b) BANKS – Types of Banks – Central Bank, Commercial Banks and other specialized banks and their features and functions. Types of accounts – current, savings and fixed deposit accounts, and their main features.

(c) INSURANCE – Meaning and basic principles of insurance – utmost good faith, insurable interest, contribution, indemnity and proximate cause.

(d) TYPES OF INSURANCE – Fire, personal accident, marine, life and endowment, burglary, insurable and uninsurable risks. Importance of insurance to business and individuals. Procedure for taking an insurance policy.

(e) STOCK EXCHANGE – Meaning and functions, procedure of transactions and speculations. Types of securities.

(f) CREDIT – Meaning, types and functions.

(g) CREDIT UNIONS AND THRIFT SOCIETIES – Meaning and aims, functions and services provided to members.

10. TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS

(a) TRANSPORT

(i) Meaning and importance;

(ii) Forms of Transport – Land, water, air and pipeline. Advantages and disadvantages of each form.

(iii) Functions of Seaports and Airports.

(b) COMMUNICATION – Meaning, importance and services of Post Office, Courier Agencies and other communication agents.

11. INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING

(a) MARKETING

(i) Meaning, importance and functions;

(ii) The marketing concept, the marketing mix (4p’s), market segmentation and consumer sovereignty.

(b) ADVERTISING

(i) Meaning, role, types and media;

(ii) Advantages and disadvantages.

(c) PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CUSTOMER SERVICES Meaning and importance.

(d) SALES PROMOTION – Trade fairs, exhibitions, gifts and demonstrations.

(e) PERSONAL SELLING – Meaning and uses.

12. LEGAL ASPECTS OF BUSINESS

(a) (i) Areas of law that relate to business – Contract, Agency, Sale of Goods Act, Hire Purchase Act; Trade Description Act.

(ii) Rights and obligations of employer and employee;

(iii) Government regulation of business – Registration of business, patents, trademarks and copy rights.

(b) CONSUMER PROTECTION

(i) Need for protection;

(ii) Means of protection – Government legislations, Food and Drugs

Act, Standard Organisation Act, Trade Description Act, Consumer Association, Price Control, Product Quality, Factory Shops and Offices Acts, etc.

13. NATIONALISATION AND INDIGENISATION/DIVESTITURE

(i) Meaning and Aims;

(ii) Advantages and Disadvantages.

14. ECONOMIC GROUPINGS

ECOWAS, Niger Basin Commission (NBC), Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC), Mano River Union, European Economic Community (EEC), African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) – Objectives and Obstacles.
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