What are the properties of alkanes?

What are the properties of alkanes?

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1 year ago
Alkanes are aliphatic hydrocarbons
They are unsaturated compounds.
They can be represented by a general molecular formula which is CnH2n+2

All the carbon atoms are tetrahedrally bonded to the hydrogen and other carbon atoms.

Alkanes are very stable. since all the 4 valence electrons from each carbon is used up.

due to their stability, Alkanes are unreactive (inert) and hardly undergo reactions except. combustion and substitution.
1 year ago
Physical Properties of Alkanes:

Alkanes are colourless.
Alkanes are less dense than water (alkanes float on top of water).
Alkanes are non-polar molecules so they are more soluble in non-polar solvents than they are in polar solvents. Alkanes are insoluble in water.
The melting and boiling points of the shorter chain alkanes is low, but the melting and boilings of alkanes increase as the number of carbon atoms in the carbon chain increases.
Chemical Properties of Alkanes:

Alkanes are relatively unreactive.
Alkanes do not react with strong acids, bases, oxidising agents (oxidants) or reducing agents (reductants).
Alkanes combust (react rapidly with oxygen) releasing energy, which makes alkanes useful as fuels.
(see combustion of hydrocarbons and heat of combustion)
Alkanes will react with halogens such chlorine gas and bromine water in the presence of ultraviolet light.
1 year ago
For simplicity, below are some physical and chemical properties of alkanes:—
physical properties;
1. Alkanes exists as solid, liquid and gases. Methane till butane exists as gases, pentane till hexadecane are liquids and all other homologoues greater than hexadecane are solids.
2. Branched alkanes exhibit lower boiling point than unbranched alkanes.
3. Solid alkanes are soft and exhibits lower melting points.
4. Alkanes are insoluble in water.
5. Boiling point and melting point in linear alkanes increase with number of carbon atoms.
6. Liquid alkanes are good solvents for many non-ionic organic compounds.
7. Alkanes can be dissolved in organic solvents.
chemical properties;
1. Not very reactive compared to other chemical species.
2. Less dense than water.
3. They are Non-polar solvents.
4. Methane through butane are flammable gases.
5. Pentane is extremely flammable liquid.
6. pKa value of alkanes are above 50.
7. Redox reaction of alkanes with oxygen and halogens are possible.
Alkanes have molecular formula of CnH2n+2 and they are known as paraffins .
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