Summary on separation in there different ways?

Summary on separation in there different ways?

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Answers (3)

agbojays
6 months ago
Various types of separation
processes are:
Crystallization
Filtration
Decantation
Sublimation
Evaporation
Simple distillation
Fractional distillation
Chromatography
Centrifugation
Separating funnel
Magnetic separation
Precipitation
Let’s discuss some of the
separation techniques
Using a separating funnel:
A separating funnel is used
for the separation of
components of a mixture
between two immiscible
liquid phases. One phase is
the aqueous phase and the
other phase is an organic
solvent. This separation is
based on the differences in
the densities of the liquids.
The liquid having more
density forms the lower layer
and the liquid having less
density forms the upper
layer.
Applications:
To separate a mixture of
oil and water.
To separate a mixture of
kerosene oil and water.
Chromatography:
Chromatography is a
separation technique used to
separate the different
components in a liquid
mixture. It was introduced by
a Russian Scientist Michael
Tswett. Chromatography
involves the sample being
dissolved in a particular
solvent called mobile
phase. The mobile phase
may be a gas or liquid. The
mobile phase is then passed
through another phase
called stationary phase. The
stationary phase may be a
solid packed in a glass plate
or a piece of chromatography
paper.
The various components of
the mixture travel at
different speeds, causing
them to separate. There are
different types of
chromatographic techniques
such as column
chromatography, TLC, paper
chromatography, and gas
chromatography.
Paper chromatography is one
of the important
chromatographic methods.
Paper chromatography uses
paper as the stationary
phase and a liquid solvent
as the mobile phase. In
paper chromatography, the
sample is placed on a spot on
the paper and the paper is
carefully dipped into a
solvent. The solvent rises up
the paper due to capillary
action and the components of
the mixture rise up at
different rates and thus are
separated from one another.
Applications:
To separate colors in a
dye.
To separate pigments
from natural colors.
To separate drugs from
blood.
Centrifugation:
Sometimes the solid particles
in a liquid are very small
and can pass through a filter
paper. For such particles, the
filtration technique cannot be
used for separation. Such
mixtures are separated by
centrifugation. So,
centrifugation is the
process of separation of
insoluble materials from
a liquid where normal
filtration does not work
well. The centrifugation is
based on the size, shape, and
density of the particles,
viscosity of the medium, and
the speed of rotation. The
principle is that the denser
particles are forced to the
bottom and the lighter
particles stay at the top when
spun rapidly.
The apparatus used for
centrifugation is called a
centrifuge. The centrifuge
consists of a centrifuge tube
holder called rotor. The rotor
holds balanced centrifugal
tubes of equal amounts of
the solid-liquid mixture. On
rapid rotation of the rotor, the
centrifuge tubes rotate
horizontally and due to the
centrifugal force, the denser
insoluble particles separate
from the liquid. When the
rotation stops, the solid
particles end up at the
bottom of the centrifuge tube
with liquid at the top.
Applications:
Used in diagnostic
laboratories for blood and
urine tests.
Used in dairies and
home to separate butter
from cream.
Used in washing
machines to squeeze
water from wet clothes.
Simple distillation:
Simple distillation is a
method used for the
separation of components of
a mixture containing two
miscible liquids that boil
without decomposition and
have sufficient difference in
their boiling points.
The distillation process
involves heating a liquid to
its boiling points, and
transferring the vapors into
the cold portion of the
apparatus, then condensing
the vapors and collecting the
condensed liquid in a
container. In this process,
when the temperature of a
liquid rises, the vapor
pressure of the liquid
increases. When the vapor
pressure of the liquid and
the atmospheric pressure
reach the same level, the
liquid passes into its vapor
state. The vapors pass over
the heated portion of the
apparatus until they come
into contact with the cold
surface of the water-cooled
condenser. When the vapor
cools, it condenses and
passes down the condenser
and is collected into a receiver
through the vacuum adapter.
Applications:
Separation of acetone and
water.
Distillation of alcohol.
Fractional distillation:
Fractional distillation is
used for the separation of a
mixture of two or more
miscible liquids for which
the difference in boiling
points is less than 25K. The
apparatus for fractional
distillation is similar to that
of simple distillation, except
that a fractionating column
is fitted in between the
distillation flask and the
condenser.
A simple fractionating
column is a tube packed with
glass beads. The beads
provide surface for the vapors
to cool and condense
repeatedly. When vapors of a
mixture are passed through
the fractionating column,
because of the repeated
condensation and
evaporation, the vapors of the
liquid with the lower boiling
point first pass out of the
fractionating column,
condense and are collected in
the receiver flask. The other
liquid, with a slightly higher
boiling point, can be collected
in similar fashion in
another receiver flask.
Applications:
Separation of different
fractions from petroleum
products.
Separation of a mixture of
methanol and ethanol.
Chinny
6 months ago
summary of seperation techniques
Simple Distillation
Simple distillation is used for separating out a liquid from a solution.

Fractional Distillation
Fractional distillation involves separating a mixture of liquids. For example, crude oil.

Filtration
Filtration is used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid.

Crystallisation
Crystallisation separates a soluble solid from a solution.

Chromatography
Chromatography is used to separate a mixture of soluble substances and to identify them.
isaaq
6 months ago
Summary
Mixtures can be separated using a variety of techniques.
Chromatography involves solvent separation on a solid medium.
Distillation takes advantage of differences in boiling points.
Evaporation removes a liquid from a solution to leave a solid material.
Filtration separates solids of different sizes.
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