2013 WAEC Geography Practical Write explanatory notes on flooding under the following; (a) areas of occurrence (b) Causes (c)...

WAEC 2013

Write explanatory notes on flooding under the following; (a) areas of occurrence (b) Causes (c) negative effects (d) control


(a) - flood plains of big rivers e.g Rivers Nile, Nigeria, and Benue
- collapsed dam sites
- low coastal areas
- poorly drained areas
- regions where water table is close to the surface
- specific places e.g the lower coastal areas of Rivers State of Nigeria, etc
- Deltaic areas
- Areas of heavy rainfall

(b) - excessive rainfall in an area
- poor drainage system
- poor urban planning 
- collapsed dams
- strong tidal waves near the coast
- high water table 
- establishment of settlements near river channels
- dumping of refuse in drainage channels
- poor infiltration due to impervious nature of rock (soil)
- establishment of settlements on areas liable to flooding
- melting of ice and snow

(c) - submergence of building 
- collapse of buildings 
- washing away of roads, railway lines, and bridges
- spread of water-borne diseases
- traffic congestion in a flooded area
- displacement of people
- loss of lives
- loss of properties
- erosion of valuable soil  
- destruction of habitat
- shortages of foodstuffs due to destruction of farmlands
- disruption of ecosystem balance

(d) environmental education 
- cleaning of blocked drainage channels
- proper urban planning 
- proper channeling of flood in urban areas
- construction of drainage channels
- resettlement of displaced people
- enforcement of environmental laws

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