introduction of genetics industries?

introduction of genetics industries?

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5 months ago
Genetic engineering, also called genetic
modification[1] or genetic manipulation,
is the direct manipulation of an
organism's genes using biotechnology. It
is a set of technologies used to change
the genetic makeup of cells, including the
transfer of genes within and across
species boundaries to produce improved
or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained
by either isolating and copying the
genetic material of interest using
recombinant DNA methods or by
artificially synthesising the DNA. A
construct is usually created and used to
insert this DNA into the host organism.
The first recombinant DNA molecule was
made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining
DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the
lambda virus. As well as inserting genes,
the process can be used to remove, or
" knock out", genes. The new DNA can be
inserted randomly, or targeted to a
specific part of the genome.
An organism that is generated through
genetic engineering is considered to be
genetically modified (GM) and the
resulting entity is a genetically modified
organism (GMO). The first GMO was a
bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer
and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Rudolf
Jaenisch created the first GM animal when
he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in
1974. The first company to focus on
genetic engineering, Genentech, was
founded in 1976 and started the
production of human proteins. Genetically
engineered human insulin was produced
in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria
were commercialised in 1982. Genetically
modified food has been sold since 1994,
with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato.
The Flavr Savr was engineered to have a
longer shelf life, but most current GM
crops are modified to increase resistance
to insects and herbicides. GloFish, the first
GMO designed as a pet, was sold in the
United States in December 2003. In 2016
salmon modified with a growth hormone
were sold.
Genetic engineering has been applied in
numerous fields including research,
medicine, industrial biotechnology and
agriculture. In research GMOs are used to
study gene function and expression
through loss of function, gain of function,
tracking and expression experiments. By
knocking out genes responsible for
certain conditions it is possible to create
animal model organisms of human
diseases. As well as producing hormones,
vaccines and other drugs genetic
engineering has the potential to cure
genetic diseases through gene therapy.
The same techniques that are used to
produce drugs can also have industrial
applications such as producing enzymes
for laundry detergent, cheeses and other
The rise of commercialised genetically
modified crops has provided economic
benefit to farmers in many different
countries, but has also been the source of
most of the controversy surrounding the
technology. This has been present since
its early use; the first field trials were
destroyed by anti-GM activists. Although
there is a scientific consensus that
currently available food derived from GM
crops poses no greater risk to human
health than conventional food, GM food
safety is a leading concern with critics.
Gene flow, impact on non-target
organisms, control of the food supply and
intellectual property rights have also been
raised as potential issues. These concerns
have led to the development of a
regulatory framework, which started in
1975. It has led to an international treaty,
the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, that
was adopted in 2000. Individual countries
have developed their own regulatory
systems regarding GMOs, with the most
marked differences occurring between
the US and Europe.
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