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A land of santhes gracilis is having a weed problem as a land/farm advicer advice...

A land of santhes gracilis is having a weed problem as a land/farm advicer advice the famer on what to do with advantages , disadvantages and weed control?

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Gaby
3 months ago
Dealing with weeds organically does not
have to be a lengthy ordeal and it does not
have to be expensive, either. Below are
several organic methods of weed control
and their respective benefits.
Thermal Weed Controls
This sounds cool, but it is not high tech at
all. The principle is simply to burn your
weeds with a flame or by using the sun.
Soil solarization is a process of weed killing
that uses clear plastic in the spring or
summer to kill weeds. Generally, after an
area is tilled but before desirable crops are
sown, the existing seedbed will spring
forth with any thousands of tiny broadleaf
or grass-like weeds that are just waiting to
suck up all the nutrients and water that you
would prefer are steered to your plants.
By placing clear plastic over the tilled area,
you are creating a greenhouse effect. Light
energy from the sun will come through the
plastic and shine onto the weeds. Not all of
that light energy bounces back as light
though; some builds up as heat. Since the
cover is right on top of the ground, that
heat is at the level of the weeds.
On a sunny day, it is conceivable the
temperature on the soil surface under that
plastic is as high as 130°F (55°C). This is
high enough to kill young plants quickly
and also to sterilize weed seeds that may
still be at the surface.
This practice prevents those weeds from
maturing to the point where they are a
threat to your crops, and further prevents
them from developing seeds to be a
nemesis in the future. This method is only
used before you have seeded or
transplanted your crops, or occasionally
after you have harvested and are done for
the season.
Flame weeding is another method of
thermal weed control. This is done with, as
the name implies, a flame weeder. This is a
propane-fueled torch that you use by
scorching the foliage of any undesired
weeds. This method can be done anytime
weeds are present as long asit is contained
to the intended weeds and not your plants.
Mechanical Weed Controls
Mechanical weed controls have been a
mainstay of organic food production since
the dawn of agriculture. Before mankind
had chemical and hydraulic tools at his
disposal, weed control was done by hand,
simple tools or by careful cultivation.
The stale seedbed approach to organic
weed control is very effective for
controlling early weeds. After the soil is
prepared in early to mid spring, it is left
alone, much like as in the soil solarization
method. Instead of covering the weeds,
however, the soil is again tilled once the
seedbed has germinated. A sowing of your
desired crops occurs immediately after
giving them a jumpstart on the weed seeds
that have yet to emerge.
Hoes, roto-tillers, broad forks, rakes, and
numerous other garden implements can be
used effectively for organic weed control
(and offer great exercise as well). Many
gardeners get frustrated with this method
if they wait too long to perform this task.
Regular turning of the top inch or so of soil,
especially in between the crop rows, is a
good way to ensure that weeds do not get
established and take over the garden area.
Mulches
The term mulch generally conjures up
images of shredded hardwood spread
around one’s foundation plantings or trees,
but it actually refers to any ground
covering, living or otherwise, and is a great
organic weed control.
Living mulches are those that are
intentionally planted to cover the ground
and out-compete weeds. In a conventional
landscape, these are things like ivy, ajuga,
or vinca vines. In a garden of edible plants
that are usually replanted annually, it could
mean other vining plants such as squashes
or peas. Care must be taken so they don’t
do too well and out-compete the other
desirable crops.
Other living mulches are cover crops. These
are intentionally planted green manures
such as oats, vetch, or clover, with a
purpose to hold the soil in place, add
nutrients to it, and not allow weeds to
proliferate. These are often planted during
the off season but can be planted in rows
between garden crops as a weed control
option.
A less popular but effective method of
using living mulch for weed control is to
selectively allow some weeds to grow as a
cover crop. When this is done, usually
weeds that serve an additional purpose are
chosen. Examples of this are letting edible
weeds such as purslane or dandelions
grow. The other main benefit to this
approach is weeds provide an environment
conducive to attracting and harboring
beneficial insects in your garden.
Non-living mulches include materials that
were previously living such as bark, straw,
and grass clippings, as well as items such
as newspaper and black plastic. These
materials are compatible with organic
gardening as they are natural materials and
decompose. Even some modern plastics are
bio-based out of corn or other degradable
materials.
If a non-degradable plastic is selected, it
will need to be removed at the end of the
season. Plastic left in place can become a
haven for unwanted animals and rodents
such as voles and other field mice. As
materials decompose (except for the non-
degradable plastic),they can add additional
nutrients to the soil. I am careful to say ‘can’
add, as some materials such as fresh wood
chips or unaged hardwood mulch can
actually pull nutrients out of the ground as
they begin their decomposition process. It
is best to use aged materials for this
purpose.
A word of caution about using straw: if you
are uncertain of the difference between
hay and straw, it’s best to find out. Hay
contains the seed heads of various grains
and grasses that will get into your soil and
germinate. You will be repopulating your
seedbed with many thousands of
undesirable seeds (unless you intend to
grow hay).
Straw is only the stems of those same
grains or grasses and should not contain
any seeds. A tried and true recipe for
organic weed control is to alternate layers
of newspaper and straw. When done
properly, it stays in place and provides
season-long weed control.
Organic Herbicides
There are numerous manufactured
concoctions, many certified organic that
can be sprayed on weeds to control them.
They are all non-selective controls. The
same precautions of preventing overspray
and drift with chemical herbicides need to
be observed when using organic ones.
Organic weed killers that inhibit seed
germination (pre-emergence) are made
from corn gluten. This method becomes
more reliable with successive years of use,
and should not be relied on as the sole
method of organic weed control. It does,
however, work to reduce the instances of
seed germination by coating the seed,
effectively blocking out the sun.
Organic herbicides that control weeds and
grasses after they have germinated (post-
emergence) are generally some
combination of horticultural grade vinegar,
acetic acid or citric acid, and other plant oils
such as clove, garlic, or mint. Their
effectiveness varies and none should be
considered to be as effective as their
chemical counterparts. They will kill or
damage desirable plants just as much as
weeds. Always defer to the manufacturers
precautions on the bottle.
The Old-Fashioned Method
Although probably not what you want to
hear, hand pulling of weeds is still probably
the most beneficial method of organic
weed control for both the garden and the
gardener. It involves no chemicals,
implements, or mulches. It not only gets
you outside for extended periods of time,
which has numerous psychological
benefits, but you will gain the best
understanding of what your plants need by
spending time in the garden.
At ground level, you can assess their
moisture level, inspect for insect pests, and
note when the appearance of the first bud
or fruit has occurred. There is no better
way to understand your plants’ needs than
to get down on their level and pull some
weeds.
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