Explain the solar system?

Explain the solar system?

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Vek Tor
3 months ago
The Solar System is the Sun and all the objects that orbit around it. The Sun is orbited by planets, asteroids, comets and other things.

The Solar System is about 4.6 billion years old.[1] It formed by gravity in a large molecular cloud. Most of this matter gathered in the center, and the rest flattened into an orbiting disk that became the Solar System. It is thought that almost all stars form by this process.

The Sun is a star. It contains 99.9% of the Solar System's mass.[2] This means that it has strong gravity. The other objects are pulled into orbit around the Sun. The Sun is mostly made out of hydrogen, and some helium.

There are eight planets in the Solar System. From closest to farthest from the Sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The first four planets are called terrestrial planets. They are mostly made of rock and metal, and they are mostly solid. The last four planets are called gas giants. This is because they are much larger than other planets and are mostly made of gas.

The Solar System also contains other things. There are asteroids, mostly between Mars and Jupiter. Further out than Neptune, there is the Kuiper belt and the scattered disc. These areas have dwarf planets, including Pluto. There are thousands of very small objects in these areas. There are also comets, centaurs, and there is interplanetary dust.

Six of the planets and three of the dwarf planets are orbited by moons. Furthermore, planetary dust orbits the gas giants. Many other systems like the Solar System have been found. Each of the billions of stars in the Milky Way galaxy might have a planetary system.
Solar system , assemblage consisting of the Sun —an average
star in the Milky Way Galaxy—and those bodies orbiting around
it: 8 (formerly 9) planets with about 170 known planetary
satellites (moons); countless asteroids, some with their own
satellites; comets and other icy bodies; and vast reaches of
highly tenuous gas and dust known as the interplanetary
medium .
solar system
The planets (in comparative size) in order of distance from
the Sun.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
The eight planets of the solar system and Pluto, in a
montage of images scaled to show the approximate sizes of
the bodies relative to one another. Outward from the Sun,
which is represented to scale by the yellow segment at the
extreme left, are the four rocky terrestrial planets (Mercury,
Venus, Earth, and Mars), the four hydrogen-rich giant planets
(Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune), and icy,
comparatively tiny Pluto.
NASA/Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
The Sun, Moon, and brightest planets were visible to the naked
eyes of ancient astronomers, and their observations and
calculations of the movements of these bodies gave rise to the
science of astronomy . Today the amount of information on the
motions, properties, and compositions of the planets and
smaller bodies has grown to immense proportions, and the
range of observational instruments has extended far beyond the
solar system to other galaxies and the edge of the known
universe . Yet the solar system and its immediate outer boundary
still represent the limit of our physical reach, and they remain
the core of our theoretical understanding of the cosmos as well.
Earth -launched space probes and landers have gathered data
on planets, moons, asteroids, and other bodies, and this data
has been added to the measurements collected with telescopes
and other instruments from below and above Earth’s
atmosphere and to the information extracted from meteorites
and from Moon rocks returned by astronauts. All this
information is scrutinized in attempts to understand in detail the
origin and evolution of the solar system—a goal toward which
astronomers continue to make great strides.
Composition Of The Solar System
Located at the centre of the solar system and influencing the
motion of all the other bodies through its gravitational force is
the Sun, which in itself contains more than 99 percent of the
mass of the system. The planets, in order of their distance
outward from the Sun, are Mercury, Venus, Earth , Mars, Jupiter ,
Saturn , Uranus , and Neptune . Four planets—Jupiter through
Neptune—have ring systems, and all but Mercury and Venus
have one or more moons. Pluto had been officially listed among
the planets since it was discovered in 1930 orbiting beyond
Neptune, but in 1992 an icy object was discovered still farther
from the Sun than Pluto. Many other such discoveries followed,
including an object named Eris that appears to be at least as
large as Pluto. It became apparent that Pluto was simply one
of the larger members of this new group of objects, collectively
known as the Kuiper belt . Accordingly, in August 2006 the
International Astronomical Union (IAU), the organization charged
by the scientific community with classifying astronomical objects,
voted to revoke Pluto’s planetary status and place it under a
new classification called dwarf planet . For a discussion of that
action and of the definition of planet approved by the IAU, see
planet .
orbits
The orbits of the planets and other bodies of the solar
system.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Sun
Learn about the comparative size of various solar system
objects.
© MinutePhysics (A Britannica Publishing Partner )
See all videos for this article
Any natural solar system object other than the Sun, a planet, a
dwarf planet, or a moon is called a small body ; these include
asteroids, meteoroid s, and comet s. Most of the several hundred
thousand asteroids, or minor planets, orbit between Mars and
Jupiter in a nearly flat ring called the asteroid belt. The myriad
fragments of asteroids and other small pieces of solid matter
(smaller than a few tens of metres across) that populate
interplanetary space are often termed meteoroids to distinguish
them from the larger asteroidal bodies.
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The solar system’s several billion comets are found mainly in
two distinct reservoirs. The more-distant one, called the Oort
cloud , is a spherical shell surrounding the solar system at a
distance of approximately 50,000 astronomical units (AU)—
more than 1,000 times the distance of Pluto’s orbit. The other
reservoir, the Kuiper belt, is a thick disk-shaped zone whose
main concentration extends 30–50 AU from the Sun, beyond
the orbit of Neptune but including a portion of the orbit of
Pluto. (One astronomical unit is the average distance from Earth
to the Sun—about 150 million km [93 million miles].) Just as
asteroids can be regarded as rocky debris left over from the
formation of the inner planets, Pluto, its moon Charon , Eris, and
the myriad other Kuiper belt objects can be seen as surviving
representatives of the icy bodies that accreted to form the cores
of Neptune and Uranus. As such, Pluto and Charon may also
be considered to be very large comet nuclei. The Centaur
object s, a population of comet nuclei having diameters as large
as 200 km (125 miles), orbit the Sun between Jupiter and
Neptune, probably having been gravitationally perturbed inward
from the Kuiper belt. The interplanetary medium —an
exceedingly tenuous plasma (ionized gas) laced with
concentrations of dust particles—extends outward from the Sun
to about 123 AU.
Orbits
All the planets and dwarf planets, the rocky asteroids, and the
icy bodies in the Kuiper belt move around the Sun in elliptical
orbits in the same direction that the Sun rotates. This motion is
termed prograde, or direct, motion. Looking down on the system
from a vantage point above Earth’s North Pole, an observer
would find that all these orbital motions are in a
counterclockwise direction. In striking contrast, the comet nuclei
in the Oort cloud are in orbits having random directions,
corresponding to their spherical distribution around the plane of
the planets.
The shape of an object’s orbit is defined in terms of its
eccentricity . For a perfectly circular orbit, the eccentricity is 0;
with increasing elongation of the orbit’s shape, the eccentricity
increases toward a value of 1, the eccentricity of a parabola. Of
the eight major planets, Venus and Neptune have the most
circular orbits around the Sun, with eccentricities of 0.007 and
0.009, respectively. Mercury, the closest planet, has the
highest eccentricity, with 0.21; the dwarf planet Pluto, with
0.25, is even more eccentric. Another defining attribute of an
object’s orbit around the Sun is its inclination, which is the angle
that it makes with the plane of Earth’s orbit—the ecliptic plane.
Again, of the planets, Mercury’s has the greatest inclination, its
orbit lying at 7° to the ecliptic; Pluto’s orbit, by comparison, is
much more steeply inclined, at 17.1°. The orbits of the small
bodies generally have both higher eccentricities and higher
inclinations than those of the planets. Some comets from the
Oort cloud have inclinations greater than 90°; their motion
around the Sun is thus opposite that of the Sun’s rotation, or
retrograde.
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