how does pest and disease of crops been prevents during fallow season?

how does pest and disease of crops been prevents during fallow season?

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mhz vee
8 months ago
Rotating land out of susceptible crops can be an effective and relatively inexpensive means for managing some diseases. To successfully use crop rotation for disease management, however, requires understanding the life cycle of the disease-causing organism (pathogen). Generally, the technique of using crop rotation for disease management is to grow non-host plants until the pathogen in the soil dies or its population is reduced to a level that will result in negligible crop damage. To manage a disease successfully with rotation, one needs to know (1) how long the pathogen can survive in the soil, (2) which additional plant species (including weeds and cover crops) it can infect or survive on, (3) other ways it can survive between susceptible crops, (4) how it can be spread or reintroduced into a field, and (5) methods for managing other pathogen sources. For example, a pathogen that can survive in the soil but can also disperse by wind may not be successfully managed by rotation if an infected planting occurs nearby or the spores can disperse long distances.
8 months ago
Prevent Plant Diseases With Good Gardening Practices
Follow Good Sanitation Practices.
Fertilize to Keep Your Plants Healthy.
Inspect Plants for Diseases Before You Bring Them Home.
Allow the Soil to Warm Before Planting.
Ensure a Healthy Vegetable Garden By Rotating Crops.
Water in the Morning.
Keep scarecrows
The crops should be pest or disease resistant.
Pest traps.
8 months ago
Physical control refers to mechanical or hand controls where the pest is actually attacked and destroyed. Physical controls are used mostly in weed control. Tillage, fire, removal by hand, grazing and mowing are all used to destroy weeds and prevent reproduction. Some insects may also be destroyed by tillage, which destroys their eggs or overwinter stages of growth. Weeds are not controlled through a single operation.

Practices such as seedbed preparation, post-seeding tillage, post-harvest tillage and summer fallow are effective in combination against weed seedlings and perennial weeds. The choices will vary with the region, crop, degree of infestation, soil condition and availability of equipment.

Soil factors influence the selection of machinery. For example, stones may prevent mowing and moisture conservation may prevent the use of repeated tillage. Consider all factors before you develop an integrated control program.

Harvest Practices
Strip harvesting
Strip harvesting leaves an unharvested strip of crop in the field, which preserves natural enemies of pests, prevents mass migration of pests and improves snow management. The harvest of a whole field of an infested crop may force insects such as beet webworm, pea aphid, cutworms and grasshoppers to migrate to another field. If the crop harbours beneficial insects (as it almost certainly will if it is infested), the harvest often destroys them, their habitat and their insect food source. The next parasite generation may even be removed from the field with the harvested crop. Thus, the pest often moves to a new crop free of its natural enemies. Strip harvesting helps maintain a stable ecosystem.

Successful strip harvesting is practiced in alfalfa pest management. Alfalfa provides an ideal habitat for a variety of insects, ranging from pests (alfalfa weevil, lygus bugs, pea aphid and alfalfa plant bug) to beneficial insects (damsel bugs, lacewings, ladybird beetles, pirate bugs, wasps, spiders and leafcutter bees). Harvesting alfalfa causes winged pea aphids to migrate and settle on other crops, while many of the beneficial insects are destroyed. There are, for example, tiny wasps that sting and deposit eggs in aphids. These parasitized aphids will be destroyed with the harvested crop, but winged healthy aphids will migrate to new areas, free of an entire generation of wasps.

To strip harvest alfalfa, cut alternate rows. When the rows that were cut have undergone some re-growth, cut the remaining rows. Alternatively, simply leave some strips or patches unharvested. Strip harvesting also provides a deeper snow cover. This can reduce winter kill during severe winters and enhances spring soil moisture conditions.

Early swathing
Early swathing can sometimes save a crop. By the time wheat that is infested with sawfly reaches maturity, the stems may have collapsed, making harvest impossible. Badly infested fields may be saved from pests such as wheat stem sawfly (or weeds) by an early harvest or by the production of hay or silage.

Unless diseases or pests are suspected, or fast drying is required, grains should be straight combined whenever possible. Straight combining permits a taller stubble and improves snow management.

The time of harvest may affect disease development and yield. Alternaria black spot of canola and mustard attacks pods late in the season. Early swathing of badly infested crops may reduce losses caused by shattering. Lay swaths so that air can circulate beneath the grain to encourage drying. If canola remains moist, sclerotinia white mold can continue to spread in the swath.

The grains of cereal crops that have lain overwinter in the swath, particularly under a snow cover, may become infected with fungi that can produce mycotoxins under certain conditions. Mycotoxins are poisonous chemicals that occur naturally as by-products of fungal species such as Cephalosporium, Fusarium and Aspergillus. Fusarium can produce vomitoxin, which may be present in hay and grain and results in production losses in animals and illness in humans.

A group of mycotoxins, the ochratoxins, may be carcinogenic and may be found in trace amounts in grains that heat during storage on prairie farms. These mycotoxins are sometimes present in the meat of poultry and hogs that have consumed contaminated feed.

Repeated mowing controls perennial weeds by depleting root reserves. It will also prevent seed production of annual and biennial weeds. Root reserves in perennial weeds are lowest when plants are in bud. If only one mowing is planned, it should be at this stage. Mowing is not effective for prostrate weeds such as field bindweed.

Mowing is often harmful to beneficial enemies of farm insect pests. Farmers need to know the life cycle and habitat needs of the beneficial species, so they can adjust mowing practices. One obvious example is the provision of habitat for birds. Birds consume huge quantities of insects and many of them nest in grass. Early mowing is one cause of nestling mortality. Wherever possible, the farmer should avoid mowing or heavy grazing until mid to late July.

Hand pulling
Although small patches of perennial weeds can be pulled up repeatedly, hand pulling is most effective for annual and biennial weeds. Pulling of annual weeds prevents seed production. If weeds are in flower, bag and burn them to prevent seed spread. Hand pulling is most feasible when you are trying to prevent the establishment of new species. Hand rouging is a routine practice on pedigreed seed farms and is practical even on large areas if the infestation is light.

Tillage was one of the first methods of weed control. It is fundamental to integrated weed control. Annual weeds, biennial weeds without extensive tap roots, and perennial seedlings are readily destroyed by tillage. The younger the weed, the easier it is to control. Tillage effectiveness relates directly to the amount of soil disturbance. The greater the disturbance, the greater the effect of tillage is on weed control.

The choice of implement depends on residue cover, soil type, soil moisture, growing conditions and weed growth. Blade implements, such as the Noble or Victory blade cultivators, conserve trash but are not very effective under cool wet conditions. Implements that bury plant residues are effective in wet conditions but increase erosion potential. Reduced tillage is desirable in the Brown and Dark Brown soil zones, particularly on sandier soil and following dry years that produce little residue cover. Field cultivators and rod weeders are a good compromise.
8 months ago
Choose disease-resistant varieties.
Many ornamental plants and
vegetables have proven resistance to
diseases such as canker, mildew, and
Don't overcrowd your plants. Good
air circulation prevents the damp
conditions that promote the growth
of fungi and other disease
Watch moisture levels. Notice if the
soil is too wet or too dry and correct
these conditions. Try to keep foliage
Practice crop rotation. Insects and
disease pathogens can persist in the
soil from one season to the next.
Moving susceptible crops from year
to year is excellent preventive
Inspect your plants. Address
problems before they get out of
hand. Remove and destroy any fruit
or foliage that you suspect may be
Be sanitary. Humans are effective, if
innocent, spreaders of plant disease.
Pathogens can be spread by your
footwear, hands, and clothes. Wash
your hands before and after
working with your plants, and clean
your clothes if you think you have
come in contact with sick plants.
Clean your tools. Soil clinging to tools
may harbor disease organisms.
Similarly, clean out pots and flats
before reusing them. A 10 percent
bleach solution (1 part bleach to nine
parts water) makes a good
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