1. explain four (4) types of bribery and corruption in the Nigerian society?

1. explain four (4) types of bribery and corruption in the Nigerian society?

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6 months ago
Corruption became a sway all over the world now a days. It can be categorized in four types.

Political corruption,
Administrative corruption
Professional corruption.
Political Corruption - Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Forms of corruption vary, but include bribery, extortion, cronyism, nepotism, parochialism, patronage, influence peddling, graft, and embezzlement. It also includes kidnapping, murder, violence, injustice etc. To win in election, political leaders are using wine, women, wealth and everything among the people.

Administrative Corruption - It includes persons like higher authorities, officers, police officers, clerks, peons, etc. For example, If we give money, then we can get anything difficult, easily. Give money no need to visit the office, you will get driving licenses. By Bribe, a blind and handicap can also get driving license. “Money makes the mare go”. In hospital, court, & other Govt. Offices everywhere you have to give money for any kind of job.

Professional Corruption - It includes duplicating medicines, duplicating import items/theft items, duplicating hygienic, mixture in eatables, Mixture in spices, stones in cereals, animal fats in ghee, kerosene in petrol etc. are under corruption.
6 months ago
Types of corruption in Nigeria
1. Bribery, receipt of illegal proceeds (extortion, kickbacks).
2. Illegal appropriation (forgery, falsification, embezzlement, misappropriation of money, property).
3. Nepotism, favoritism (appointment to the posts of relatives and friends).
4. Manipulation of regulation (falsification of elections, decision-making in favor of one group or person).
6 months ago
Embezzlement of public funds is common. Many leaders have helped boost the economies of other nations by depositing embezzled money into foreign banks.

Political corruption is persistent in the Nigerian state. Since the creation of modern public administration in the country, there have been cases of official misuse of resources for personal enrichment (Storey Report 2014). After the death of the former president, Sani Abacha, an investigation was carried out to determine the amount of money he embezzled in gas plant construction in the country. The investigations led to the freezing of accounts containing about $100 million United States dollars that he stole (Hector 2004).

The Abacha administration notoriously looted upwards of $3 billion in the 1990s (Uzochukwu 2013). The federal government’s agreement with the Swiss government on the return of looted funds traced to former Head of State General Sani Abacha led to the remittance of US$322 million in December 2017 (Webby 2018).

The plan is to distribute the returned money among Nigerians, which was confirmed through the publication of Transparency International in August 2018. It stated:

In Nigeria, plans are in motion to distribute US$322 million recovered in Switzerland from the late General Sani Abacha, the country’s former military ruler.

Before now, some funds were returned to Nigeria by the Swiss bank in 2006 from the money stolen by the same former president. In 2006, US$723 million illicitly acquired by Abacha’s family was returned to Nigeria from Switzerland (Transparency International 2018).

Missing Children
As of a few years ago, whenever it was time for an election in Nigeria, small children across the country began to go missing. Child kidnapping during that period was rampant and parents were usually advised to guard their children against ritualists. But why was it like that and what happened to the kidnapped children?

This is another face of corruption—one that breaks the hearts of mothers. The missing children were used by contesting politicians to perform ritual killings in order to get protection and devilish powers that would enable them to win elections. This is corruption and wickedness in the highest order because it involves the termination of human life. Those who take part in that practice have their own children at home, yet went on capturing and killing the children of others. This practice hasn't stopped, but it has slowed down.

Election Rigging
Election rigging is not an unheard-of phenomenon. During elections, the candidates hire thugs who go around the election polling stations to highjack the ballot boxes. When they steal these boxes, they then write in votes for their candidate. In recent times, a new tactic that contestants have adopted is buying voters' cards so that they can manipulate and use the cards to their advantage.

On many occasions, politicians have bribed top officials to commit illegal acts to their favor. Some political leaders, including governors and presidents, have been sued by opponents, but the sued were able to escape punishment by bribing attorneys and judges. At the end of the judgment, the leader who bribed someone won the case.
6 months ago
types of corruption in Nigeria.
●Electoral violations (buying votes, rigging election results).
●Extortion (civil servants illegally set a fee for services or artificially create a deficit).
● Clientelism and patronage (politicians provide material services in exchange for citizen support).
●Illegal contributions to election campaigns (transfer of gifts to influence the content of the policy).
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